The history of Climate Change

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
California Once Again Tops the U.S. Clean Tech Leadership Index… But Falls a Penny Short of the Highest Electricity Prices in the Lower 48 By Ralph Cavanagh
California continues to lead the way on clean energy, but energy efficiency and renewables are gaining major ground across the country, a new ranking of states and cities shows. Six states now get at least a fifth of their power from non-hydro renewable sources such as wind and solar



CTLI Rank Residential /kWh Rank
Hawaii 55.5 10 29.04 1
Alaska 17.6 21.58 2
Connecticut 58.7 6 20.06 3
Massachusetts 77.8 2 19.84 4
New Hampshire 44.6 18.98 5
California 92.0 1 18.87 6

you'd think with all those windmills, solar panels and even a nuclear power station that the price would be low in comparison. Nope.
 

Ighayere

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
2,640
Benin City, Nigeria
did you bother to look at the list? or just disregard the site because you don't like it? snopes is known as a liberal site. they have long since abandoned their urban legend efforts.
https://realclimatescience.com/

Of course I looked at it. The claim was simply false.

You even referenced Abrantes et al yet the simple, undeniable fact is that Abrantes is clearly not a global warming skeptic nor was the paper any sort of attempt to "show that global warming is a myth".

I don't even see how this is an issue of liberal or conservative. Breitbart, as is so often the case, made a patently false claim/interpretation and it was quickly debunked.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
17 New Scientific Papers Dispute CO2 Greenhouse Effect As Primary Explanation For Climate Change
here's one.
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/the-refutation-of-the-climate-greenhouse-theory-and-a-proposal-for-ahopeful-alternative.pdf Environment Pollution and Climate Change Thomas Allmendinger, Environ Pollut Climate Change 2017, 1:2
Abstract
In view of the global acceptance and the political relevance of the climate greenhouse theory–or rather philosophyit
appeared necessary to deliver a synoptic presentation enabling a detailed exemplary refutation. It focuses the
foundations of the theory assuming that a theory cannot be correct when its foundations are not correct. Thus, above
all, a critical historical review is made. As a spin-off of this study, the Lambert-Beer law is questioned suggesting
an alternative approach. Moreover, the Stefan-Boltzmann law is relativized revealing the different characters of
the two temperature terms. But in particular, the author’s recently published own work is quoted revealing novel
measurement methods and yielding several crucial arguments, while finally an empiric proof is presented.
The cardinal error in the usual greenhouse theory consists in the assumption that photometric or spectroscopic IR-measurements allow conclusions about the thermal behaviour of gases, i.e., of the atmosphere. They trace back to John Tyndall who developed such a photometric method already in the 19th century. However, direct thermal measurement methods have never been applied so far. Apart from this, at least twenty crucial errors are revealed which suggest abandoning the theory as a whole.
In spite of its obvious deficiencies, this theory has so far been an obstacle to take promising precautions for mitigating the climate change. They would consist in a general brightening of the Earth surface, and in additional measures being related to this. However, the novel effects which were found by the author, particularly the absorption
of incident solar-light by the atmosphere as well as its absorption capability of thermal radiation, cannot be influenced by human acts. But their discovery may contribute to a better understanding of the atmospheric processes.

The fact that the atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentration has increased while the average global temperature has increased, too, does not reveal a causal relationship but solely an analogous one. The two phenomena just occurred simultaneously. Likewise, the urbanisation and the industrialisation of the world have considerably increased, as a result of the global population increase, being related to an increase of the buildings
and further superficial changes, in particular of the brightness

Most people have no idea how little the carbon-dioxide content of
the atmosphere really is. Even if one adjusts the values given in the figures
2 and 3 upward to 400 ppm=0.04 percent amounting the 2500th part of
air, it seems unlikely that this would be responsible for the warming up
of the whole atmosphere.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research This paper demonstrates that global warming can be explained without recourse to the greenhouse theory. This explanation is based on a simple model of the Earth's climate system consisting of three layers: the surface, a lower and an upper atmospheric layer. The distinction between the atmospheric layers rests on the assumption that the latent heat from the surface is set free in the lower atmospheric layer only. The varying solar irradiation constitutes the sole input driving the changes in the system's energy transfers.
SAGE Journals Vol 28, Issue 4, 2017 Global warming: Sun and water
Harold J Blaauw First Published January 1, 2017 Research Article
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
“Our analysis revealed that GMATs [global mean annual temperatures] of rocky planets with tangible atmospheres and a negligible geothermal surface heating can accurately be predicted over a broad range of conditions using only two forcing variables: top-of-the-atmosphere solar irradiance and total surface atmospheric pressure - See more at: 17 New Scientific Papers Dispute CO2 Greenhouse Effect As Primary Explanation For Climate Change
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/new-insights-on-the-physical-nature-of-the-atmospheric-greenhouse-effect-deduced-from-an-empirical-planetary-temperature-model.pdf Environment Pollution and Climate Change Nikolov and Zeller, Environ Pollut Climate Change 2017, 1:2

Abstract
A recent study has revealed that the Earth’s natural atmospheric greenhouse effect is around 90 K or about 2.7 times stronger
than assumed for the past 40 years. A thermal enhancement of such a magnitude cannot be explained with the observed amount
of outgoing infrared long-wave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere (i.e. ≈ 158 W m-2), thus requiring a re-examination of the
underlying Greenhouse theory. We present here a new investigation into the physical nature of the atmospheric thermal effect using a
novel empirical approach toward predicting the Global Mean Annual near-surface equilibrium Temperature (GMAT) of rocky planets
with diverse atmospheres. Our method utilizes Dimensional Analysis (DA) applied to a vetted set of observed data from six celestial
bodies representing a broad range of physical environments in our Solar System, i.e. Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, Titan (a moon
of Saturn), and Triton (a moon of Neptune). Twelve relationships (models) suggested by DA are explored via non-linear regression
analyses that involve dimensionless products comprised of solar irradiance, greenhouse-gas partial pressure/density and total
atmospheric pressure/density as forcing variables, and two temperature ratios as dependent variables. One non-linear regression
model is found to statistically outperform the rest by a wide margin. Our analysis revealed that GMATs of rocky planets with tangible
atmospheres and a negligible geothermal surface heating can accurately be predicted over a broad range of conditions using
only two forcing variables: top-of-the-atmosphere solar irradiance and total surface atmospheric pressure. The hereto discovered
interplanetary pressure-temperature relationship is shown to be statistically robust while describing a smooth physical continuum
without climatic tipping points. This continuum fully explains the recently discovered 90 K thermal effect of Earth’s atmosphere. The
new model displays characteristics of an emergent macro-level thermodynamic relationship heretofore unbeknown to science that
has important theoretical implications. A key entailment from the model is that the atmospheric ‘greenhouse effect’ currently viewed
as a radiative phenomenon is in fact an adiabatic (pressure-induced) thermal enhancement analogous to compression heating
and independent of atmospheric composition. Consequently, the global down-welling long-wave flux presently assumed to drive
Earth’s surface warming appears to be a product of the air temperature set by solar heating and atmospheric pressure. In other
words, the so-called ‘greenhouse back radiation’ is globally a result of the atmospheric thermal effect rather than a cause for it.
Our
empirical model has also fundamental implications for the role of oceans, water vapour, and planetary albedo in global climate. Since
produced by a rigorous attempt to describe planetary temperatures in the context of a cosmic continuum using an objective analysis
of vetted observations from across the Solar System, these findings call for a paradigm shift in our understanding of the atmospheric
‘greenhouse effect’ as a fundamental property of climate.
 

Ighayere

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
2,640
Benin City, Nigeria
17 New Scientific Papers Dispute CO2 Greenhouse Effect As Primary Explanation For Climate Change
here's one.
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/the-refutation-of-the-climate-greenhouse-theory-and-a-proposal-for-ahopeful-alternative.pdf Environment Pollution and Climate Change Thomas Allmendinger, Environ Pollut Climate Change 2017, 1:2
Abstract
In view of the global acceptance and the political relevance of the climate greenhouse theory–or rather philosophyit
appeared necessary to deliver a synoptic presentation enabling a detailed exemplary refutation. It focuses the
foundations of the theory assuming that a theory cannot be correct when its foundations are not correct. Thus, above
all, a critical historical review is made. As a spin-off of this study, the Lambert-Beer law is questioned suggesting
an alternative approach. Moreover, the Stefan-Boltzmann law is relativized revealing the different characters of
the two temperature terms. But in particular, the author’s recently published own work is quoted revealing novel
measurement methods and yielding several crucial arguments, while finally an empiric proof is presented.
The cardinal error in the usual greenhouse theory consists in the assumption that photometric or spectroscopic IR-measurements allow conclusions about the thermal behaviour of gases, i.e., of the atmosphere. They trace back to John Tyndall who developed such a photometric method already in the 19th century. However, direct thermal measurement methods have never been applied so far. Apart from this, at least twenty crucial errors are revealed which suggest abandoning the theory as a whole.
In spite of its obvious deficiencies, this theory has so far been an obstacle to take promising precautions for mitigating the climate change. They would consist in a general brightening of the Earth surface, and in additional measures being related to this. However, the novel effects which were found by the author, particularly the absorption
of incident solar-light by the atmosphere as well as its absorption capability of thermal radiation, cannot be influenced by human acts. But their discovery may contribute to a better understanding of the atmospheric processes.

The fact that the atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentration has increased while the average global temperature has increased, too, does not reveal a causal relationship but solely an analogous one. The two phenomena just occurred simultaneously. Likewise, the urbanisation and the industrialisation of the world have considerably increased, as a result of the global population increase, being related to an increase of the buildings
and further superficial changes, in particular of the brightness

Most people have no idea how little the carbon-dioxide content of
the atmosphere really is. Even if one adjusts the values given in the figures
2 and 3 upward to 400 ppm=0.04 percent amounting the 2500th part of
air, it seems unlikely that this would be responsible for the warming up
of the whole atmosphere.
It's an interesting paper, and its claim that the two phenomena are just coincidental in time but not causally connected is interesting, but I'll wait for a review of this idea from those with better qualifications in this particular area of science. Just on the face of it, it seems unusual that the two trends are merely just coincidental in the time of their occurrence.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
It's an interesting paper, and its claim that the two phenomena are just coincidental in time but not causally connected is interesting, but I'll wait for a review of this idea from those with better qualifications in this particular area of science. Just on the face of it, it seems unusual that the two trends are merely just coincidental in the time of their occurrence.
one can come up with a trend showing wearing of shoes is related to global warming. Try it.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
CO2 Science and Atmospheric CO2 mole fraction affects stand-scale carbon use efficiency of sunflower by stimulating respiration in light - Gong - 2017 - Plant, Cell & Environment - Wiley Online Library First published: 1 February 2017
DOI: 10.1111/pce.12886
Gong, X.Y., Schäufele, R., Lehmeier, C.A., Tcherkez, G. and Schnyder, H. 2017. Atmospheric CO2 mole fraction affects stand-scale carbon use efficiency of sunflower by stimulating respiration in light. Plant, Cell and Environment 40: 401-412.

As one of the top 35 crops in terms of global food production, it is important to understand how sunflower (Helianthus annus) plants will respond to increases in the air's CO2 content. The latest study to do just that comes from Gong et al. (2017), who grew sunflower seeds (cv Sanluca) in plastic pots in controlled environment chambers under CO2 concentrations of 200 (low treatment) or 1000 ppm (high treatment) for a period of 42 days.

At the end of the experiment, Gong et al. report that elevated CO2 increased plant dry mass (g per plant) by 52 percent and plant photosynthesis by 91 percent. In addition, the aerial fertilization effect of elevated CO2 led to increases in net and gross primary productivity of 77 and 90 percent, respectively (see figure below). Furthermore, the authors report that stomatal conductance "showed a clear reduction, and intrinsic water use efficiency showed a clear increase with CO2" as well.
so increased CO2 and increased plant growth.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2

Significance

Combining ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and quantum mechanical density functional theory calculations, this work reveals the essential first step for activating CO2 on a Cu surface, in particular, highlighting the importance of copper suboxide and the critical role of water. These findings provide the quintessential information needed to guide the future design of improved catalysts.

Abstract
A national priority is to convert CO2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide structure below the copper surface is essential to bind the CO2 in the physisorbed configuration at 298 K, and we show that this suboxide is essential for converting to the chemisorbed CO2 in the presence of water as the first step toward CO2 reduction products such as formate and CO. This optimum suboxide leads to both neutral and charged Cu surface sites, providing fresh insights into how to design improved carbon dioxide reduction catalysts.


in lay terms: In a new study published the week of June 12 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), researchers report the mechanics behind an early key step in artificially activating CO2 so that it can rearrange itself to become the liquid fuel ethanol. Theorists at Caltech used quantum mechanics to predict what was happening at atomic scales, while experimentalists at the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (Berkeley Lab) used X-ray studies to analyze the steps of the chemical reaction.

The scientists are part of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP), a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, whose goal is to convert CO2 into high-value chemical products like liquid fuels. JCAP is led by Caltech in partnership with Berkeley Lab, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), and UC campuses at San Diego and Irvine.