- Oct 2014
Thank you, Lowell!
1875 flood windsor (see The River Thames Flooding Windsor, 1870s - 1890s. Thamesweb History)Abstract. The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers). Here, we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high-magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding
are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods). Statistically significant relationships between the British flood index, the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are identified.
Current batteries are awful. Some future potential batteries will be better.another reason why political mandates have no place in actual science or engineering.
New Study: Large CO2 Emissions From Batteries Of Electric Cars | The Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF) NEW STUDY: LARGE CO2 EMISSIONS FROM BATTERIES OF ELECTRIC CARS
Date: 12/06/17 Johan Kristensson, New Technology
Enormous hope rests on electric cars as the solution by the motor industry to climate change. However the batteries of electric cars are not environmentally friendly when manufactured. Several tonnes of carbon dioxide are being released, even before electric batteries leave the factory.
(original report. Not in English. a translator is available on the website. Transporter)
t to understand the importance of battery size here’s one example: Two standard electric cars on the market, Nissan Leaf and Tesla Model S, have batteries of approximately 30 kWh and 100 kWh respectively.
As soon as you buy the car, CO2 emissions of approximately 5.3 tonnes and 17.5 tonnes, respectively, have been released for batteries of these sizes. The numbers may be difficult to relate to. By way of comparison, a trip for a person returning from Stockholm to New York by air causes emissions of more than 600 kilograms of carbon dioxide, according to the UN organization ICAO’s calculation mode Another conclusion of the study is that about half of the emissions occur during the production of raw materials and half during the production of the battery in the factory. The mining itself accounts for only a small part of between 10-20 percent.
Mats-Ola Larsson, their colleague at IVL, has calculated how long you need to drive a petrol or diesel car before it has released as much carbon dioxide as an electric car battery. The result was 2.7 years for a battery of the same size as Nissan Leaf and 8.2 years for a battery of Tesla size, based on a series of assumptions.
Electric street cars ("buses") make some sense since an in-place grid can be created in a city which then provides the energy to run the cars. This isn't because the electricity isn't of itself more efficient -- it's because one can then remove the engine from the street car, lightening the car and thus allowing the car to carry more passenger/ cargo loads. such cars have their limits as they can only go where the "grid" provides power unless they have some auxiliary power system (which reduces the plus of payload) but if the route is well traveled and the use of such vehicles frequent, they can be a real plus. Hence the use of electric street cars/ buses and the occasional electric train.Current batteries are awful. Some future potential batteries will be better.
I guess electric cars will make sense when we have fusion power, but then at the same time if we have fusion power then we could easily use it to make hydrogen fuel or even something more complex.
But I don't see the point for them today anyhow because it is basically just switching from one fossil fuel energy souce to another.
https://wattsupwiththat.com/2017/06/20/the-new-consensus-on-global-warming-a-shocking-admission-by-team-climate/In the early twenty-first century, satellite-derived tropospheric warming trends were generally smaller than trends estimated from a large multi-model ensemble. Because observations and coupled model simulations do not have the same phasing of natural internal variability, such decadal differences in simulated and observed warming rates invariably occur. Here we analyse global-mean tropospheric temperatures from satellites and climate model simulations to examine whether warming rate differences over the satellite era can be explained by internal climate variability alone. We find that in the last two decades of the twentieth century, differences between modelled and observed tropospheric temperature trends are broadly consistent with internal variability. Over most of the early twenty-first century, however, model tropospheric warming is substantially larger than observed; warming rate differences are generally outside the range of trends arising from internal variability. The probability that multi-decadal internal variability fully explains the asymmetry between the late twentieth and early twenty-first century results is low (between zero and about 9%). It is also unlikely that this asymmetry is due to the combined effects of internal variability and a model error in climate sensitivity. We conclude that model overestimation of tropospheric warming in the early twenty-first century is partly due to systematic deficiencies in some of the post-2000 external forcings used in the model simulations.
Yeah, that's a good idea. We should use more of those and fewer buses.Electric street cars ("buses") make some sense since an in-place grid can be created in a city which then provides the energy to run the cars. This isn't because the electricity isn't of itself more efficient -- it's because one can then remove the engine from the street car, lightening the car and thus allowing the car to carry more passenger/ cargo loads. such cars have their limits as they can only go where the "grid" provides power unless they have some auxiliary power system (which reduces the plus of payload) but if the route is well traveled and the use of such vehicles frequent, they can be a real plus. Hence the use of electric street cars/ buses and the occasional electric train.
in these instances, the source of the electricity is fundamentally irrelevant. The plus is in eliminating the engine altogether in the vehicle.