The Kensington Runestone


Forum Staff
Feb 2009
Eastern PA
As quoted in the previous post, the story has always been in the maps and tons and tons or research looking at old maps for days on end. Well now, you'll never guess what we found on another map and yes, its NOT a fake map. Damn, don't ya just get tired of all this "historian" BS. Anyway, enjoy. The page has three additional links for your viewing pleasure.

1591 Tatton Map, Newport Tower.pdf

Brevis exactaque totius Novi Orbis eiusque insularum descriptio recens a Joan. Bellero edita

And since I'm on another rampage over the stupidity of this "Columbus first" crap and those who have supported it on this forum, you might want to look at the larger overall picture of the map and then ask yourself if the National Geographic organization shouldn't be classified as involved with "JUNK HISTORY". This one is real close to home. If you need a hint as to what I'm driving at 1) look closely at the map and notice Antarctica, 2) look up on the National Geographic site with the link below. Remember this map was drawn in (Source author:) Cieza de León, Pedro de, 1518-1554. l really have said enough. Enjoy.

Antarctica Discovered
Good Grief!

According to your link to the John Brown library (Brevis exactaque totius Novi Orbis eiusque insularum descriptio recens a Joan. Bellero edita), the map you are citing is 15 cm X 10 cm (a little less than 6" X 4"). You have magnified the view about 100X and claim that the map depicts the Newport Tower! Good grief! The map doesn't even accurately depict Cape Cod.
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Jul 2018
Perhaps its a "memory" device. I'm not here to provide all of your research. I only point the way. Maybe we should be asking the question in a different context. Like, for example, "Where is the real life original" or "Where did this come from" or "Who made this from what reference point", etc. This little map is just the beginning and, by no means, the end.

Somebody made this for a reason. Perhaps reading a good book about medieval thinking and memory techniques is in order. Mary Carruthers and Jan M. Ziolkowski or Dame Frances Yates are really good starting points. I did mention a while back that the group (informally) represents over maybe 200 people. And no, we don't just stop because some map is "tiny". If you should recall, in the 20th century, spies used "microdots" - now that is really interesting history.
Jul 2018
ya, you got that one right. we have access to an electron microscope.....gotta get this one right from the get-go.....cheers

Phippsburg History Center


Scanning electron microscope color mapping of deposits on one surface area section of the ring. There are no anomalies with any of the elements that are present in the scan. There is ample literature for silver artifacts which reflects that the aluminum, chlorine, and sulfur are results of corrosion and interaction with the naturally occuring elements in both land and maritime environments.

Jul 2018
and for the third post this wonderful AM on a Friday (California time), back to the sun and a few navigational items. oh ya, forgot - this also includes Rosslyn Chapel (this building just doesn't go away, does it). I wonder if it has something very important to tell about the Newport Tower and the Kensington Stone. hummmm...have a good one. AND DON"T FOTGET to get a copy (and read it) of Ashley Cowie's book "The VIking Sea Chart" -- very important.

Phippsburg History Center

Summer Solstice Solar Noon 72° Sun Elevation vs. Latitude
5000 Year Longitudinal Study

As the last slide involved the long-used mathematical formulas for determining the zenith position of the Sun, at Solar Noon, for the Summer & Winter Solstices and the Equinox, let’s now look at 5000 years of data for the latitude where the Sun attains exactly 72.00° zenith elevation on the Summer Solstice.

As always, we use the NOAA Solar Calculator web application. I am just an end user. It is the smart folks at NOAA, the good mathematicians, who developed the web application.

The DECLINATION (axial tilt) values are multiplied by 2X to keep the plotting scrunched together. The frequency sample was every 100 years based off of Year 1362. The end-limits for the web application are 2000 BCE and 3000 CE.

There is a 1:1 (linear) relationship between the incrementing/decrementing of the 72° zenith point compared to the incrementing/decrementing of the latitude. The Earth’s axial tilt range, 24.5° to 22.1°, takes approximately 41,000 years to complete a full cycle (24.5° to 22.1° then back to 24.5°). A half-cycle takes approximately 20,500 years to complete.

Although not shown on the slide, we determined by trend lines that the 72° zenith elevation will range from approximately 42.51°N to 40.11°N latitude. Discounting the slight 0.01° imperfection, when the Earth’s axial tilt is 24.00°, the 72° zenith elevation on the Summer Solstice will be located at 42.00°N latitude. We are going to forgo the Megalithic Yard sermon on this slide because you will get it soon enough on another slide.

On the slide you can see a large blue rectangle around data points where the 72° zenith elevation occurs within the latitude confines of Narragansett Bay. The green rectangle is a smaller latitude bracket with the northern boundary set at the discovery latitude of Narragansett Rune Stone (NRS) and the southern at the Newport Tower (NT).
In Year 1362 the zenith elevation at the Newport Tower was 72.04°. The 72.00° zenith elevation was a bit over three miles to the north of the NT, landing at the 41.53°N latitude.

The Newport Tower latitude of 41.48°N would experience a zenith elevation of exactly 72.00° in the Year 1662. I am sure that this sends a tingle down the leg of everyone who dreams of Benedict Arnold and his windmill.

Phippsburg History Center


We always use the exact values from the NOAA web application. No rounding of the data goes into the spreadsheets or onto the slides. This being said, I have no reluctance in postulating that field measurements of zenith elevations, or latitude, were NOT achievable to a 0.01° tolerance interval. Ptolemy, in his “Geography” work, used a tolerance interval of 5’ (0.0833°) in expressing longitude and latitude values.

To understand WHERE the 72° zenith elevation takes place on the Summer Solstice, one doesn’t need to be in Narragansett Bay. You can computationally determine where it is going to occur by knowing what the Earth’s axial tilt is for that period.
I believe that the five-pointed star in the Rosslyn Vault represents the latitude of the 72° zenith elevation on the Summer Solstice. Period.

There is congruity between the concepts underlying the lozenge representation (Rising and Setting Points on the solstices) and the five-pointed star representing the zenith elevation. They are both Sun-related mechanisms.

The star is positioned between the 55.8°N and 39.5°N latitudes. As the 72° zenith elevation was at 41.53°N latitude in Year 1362, and 41.51°N latitude in 1462, we are right in the sweet zone.

Some believe that the five-pointed star is representative of Venus. Venus is a planet. A planet is not the Sun. These are incongruent heavenly bodies.

Jul 2018
has the search for the 'Hooked X' ended.....not in your wildest does this one beat all. only live once (so they say), so you better get it right the first time. from the early 1300's...not only does it have a "Hooked X" but it also has the dimensioning unit used in the construction of the Newport Tower....double DAMN.....

Phippsburg History Center

just in case you missed it, notice the first two numbers - 8 & 22 - now I wonder where I've seen this combo before...hummmmmm…..

Jul 2018
hello everybody...hope things are going a little posting here. and it has everything to do with navigation and maps. ta heck with the "he said, they say (academic books)" stuff. go for the throat (map) === enjoy -- notice all of the rhumb lines....much work was put into making these maps...

Phippsburg History Center

Phippsburg History Center

· September 8 ·

c. 1535-1542 Rotz Atlas

This was a nice find by researcher Steve DiMarzo. There is a depiction of the Newport Tower, situated directly on the 41.5° line of latitude, on Folio 23v of the c. 1535-1542 Rotz Atlas. This is another pigmented colored representation. It was drawn over the heavier, black line of the coastline – which is why the coastline in this area is obscured.

Here is a revision of a sentence from yesterday’s posting on the 1571 Dourado Map:

“To date, we have found a slightly offset color pigmentation as the definition for the tower structure on the 1531 Maggiolo, c. 1535-1542 Rotz Atlas, c. 1543-1545 Battista, 1571 Dourado, 1591 Tatton, and 1639 John Daniel maps.”

Here is the current listing of maps/charts which illustrate the Newport Tower:
-1531 Vesconte Maggiolo (Genoa, IT; w/ Verrazzano in Dieppe, FR)
-1535-1542 (circa) Rotz Atlas (Dieppe, FR)
-1543-45 Agnese Battista (Genoa, IT)
-1565 Diogo Homen?? (Portuguese)
-1571 Fernao Vaz Dourado (Portuguese)
-1580 Simon Fernandes (Portuguese)
-1591 Gabriel Tatton (London, UK & Paris, FR)
-1610 Velasco (John Daniel) (London, UK)
-1631 Jean Guerard (Dieppe, FR)
-1634 William Wood (visited New England proper)
-1639 John Daniel (London, UK)

Eleven maps, thus far.

Now, we can go on the attack and wonder why academics and historians never noticed the Newport Tower on these maps. That would be bad form.

Academics and historians worked under the same conditions that the rest of us did up until about the last decade or so.

The great leveler for EVERY RESEARCHER, academic or avocational, has been technology. High quality digital imaging scans, the archiving of these cartographic products on servers, and the Internet have made previously un-accessible maps available for everyone. No longer is someone looking at a singular map through a magnifying glass in marginal lighting conditions. We can now download them, adjust their brightness and contrast to enhance the image, and then catalogue what is seen. We can run through dozens, if not hundreds, of maps in one sitting. What is the financial cost outlay to do this? Nothing! All it takes is an investment of time.

It was the academics, archivists, and imaging staffs of institutions, large and small, who have not only preserved these historical cartographic products, but made them accessible to the larger public. Map auction houses have also contributed greatly. All of these folks should be appreciated for their efforts.

In hindsight, now that the Newport Tower appears on ten maps prior to English Colonists settling on the southern end of Aquidneck Island in 1639, what exactly is the big secret?

Rotz Atlas:
Royal MS 20 E IX (British Library)
Then navigate to Folio 23v
Jul 2018
2nd posting here and this one takes you to Portugal...actually, this is probably were it all started but then this is just an "opinion" (mine)…. a good book to get and study is Freddy Silva's -

this is 3rd of three postings at "Phippsburg" site -- enjoy
Phippsburg History Center

Page Liked · September 7 ·

1571 Universal Atlas of Fernão Vaz Dourado
Slide 3 of 3 (Same narrative as Slide 2 of 3)

What first caught our eye on this specific map was the black dot and slightly different pigmentation within the yellow-shaded upland area just inshore of the green-shaded coastline. We found a good quality digital image of the map as part of the digitized collections of the Arquivo Nacional Torre Do Tombo. We snipped a portion of the digitized image, dropped it into MS PowerPoint, and adjusted the contrast and brightness. Even before we inverted the color scheme, we could see the outline of a tower structure defined by the slightly different pigmentation. The block dot likely represents a window, or opening. On the top of the tower there is a faint, white line which extends outwards – a pole.

The inverted color scheme provided further definition on these three elements.

To date, we have found a slightly offset color pigmentation as the definition for the tower structure on the 1531 Maggiolo, c. 1543-1545 Battista, 1571 Dourado, 1592 Tatton, and 1539 John Daniel maps.

The 1414 de Virga, 1531 Maggiolo, 1543-1545 Battista, and 1571 Dourado maps all exhibit a pole extending from the top of the tower.

On the 1571 Dourado Map we have a latitude match, toponym correlation, offset pigmentation for definition of the structure, and the pole extending from the top.
Fernão Vaz Dourado crafted several atlases in the approximate twenty-year period from 1565 to 1585. We were able to located a good digital image of the same folio from his 1570 atlas ( There is no similar feature found in the 1570 atlas.

Of course, this will give rise to the contention that what is present on the 1571 map, since it isn’t present on the 1570-version, is not really a purposeful, or intended, illustration. There are always variations in cartographic works. That the feature is found in 1571, but not 1570, merely represents a variation.
This particular map, respective of the tower feature, could have multi-spectral imaging performed on it. This technique would re-confirm the slightly different pigmentation change for the body of the structure, the white line of the pole, and the black dot representative of an opening into the structure.

Then again, why go to the trouble and cost to perform multi-spectral imaging when one can just look at the map and pick out the features of an illustrated tower?

Arquivo Nacional Torre Do Tombo (Portugal)
1571 Universal Atlas of Fernão Vaz Dourado
Folio 11: PT-TT-CRT-165_m0011.TIF

Jul 2018
this is an example of how EASY it is to "forget"/"missing"/"don't know" history. its no wonder the Newport Tower and Kensington Stone have had such a history.
the first two paragraphs say it all. its called "we have no idea so we'll pigeon hole the object" (in other words - lets not research this). why is this important to the "tower" and "stone". Easy, they both use the "length of day". <RING ANY BELLS HERE>

Phippsburg History Center

Phippsburg History Center

· September 3 ·

There is an excellent article on a very unique Roman cylinder dial that was written in 1997 by Mario Arnaldi and Karlheinz Schaldach. Read it!!

-Link to downloadable 1997 article:
-Link to marked-up 1997 article:
If you have recognized it, yet, the Newport Tower is a variant form of a cylinder dial. It, meaning the Newport Tower, is specifically designed for the 41.48° latitude.

The Roman cylinder dial had a rotatable top which had to be aligned for the instrument to function.

The Newport Tower used a different scheme. There was no rotatable top. What they did was to create apertures on the circumference of the cylindrical tower. These apertures were rotated in azimuth from the center point of Solar Noon – which is Due South on the structure. The apertures were set at slightly different elevations on the structure in order to create a pattern of alignments that occurred in degree (72° and 24°) and timing (96 minute) intervals OVER THE PERIOD OF THE ENTIRE YEAR. In short, the designers and builders of the Newport Tower HARDWIRED these intervals into the structure.

We know this because we find this repetitive pattern of lightbox and spotlight illuminations onto, or into, landmarks (niches, apertures, EGG, fireplace, etc.) on the tower.

Years ago, Jim Egan saw that the Newport Tower was a type of “horologium.” And it is, in a sense. However, the function of the tower is NOT to inform you about the TIME OF DAY. The apertures are too large to give any degree of precision in that regard. What the tower does do is to return a repetitive sequence of values, as discussed above, throughout the entire period of the YEAR.

The key dates are the Winter and Summer Solstices, the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes, the 24/14/10 days of 01 May and 11 August, and the 24/10/14 days at the end of January and in late November.

Now…to keep this short…everyone should recognize that PENTIMAL NOTATION (Pentadic Numbers) were almost exclusively used in time-keeping functions. Calendars and sun dials. Instruments related to time and time-keeping…which could range from hours, to days, to months, to a year, or even more.

Revision A, Pentadic Numbers, Arabic Placement_Study Guide
See p. 35, 55, and 56
Jul 2018
for those in the area --- the history is starting to get noticed -- enjoy
David Brody

The Littleton Historical Society has invited me to present my "Exploration of American Before Columbus" research this Thursday, 9/19, at 7:30. Congregational Church, 330 King Street, free and open to public. Looking forward to returning to my old neighborhood! (Pictured is rubbing of Westford Knight carving.)

Jul 2018
here we are back again -- enjoy. the postings is self-explanatory..
Phippsburg History Center

Harleian World Map (c. 1542-1544)
British Library, Add. MS 5413

The 'Dauphin' or 'Harleian' Map, c.1542-44, as described by the British Library, may be found here:

"This large undated, unsigned manuscript map, oriented with South at the top,
approximately 4 x 8 feet, which derives its name from a former owner, Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. Its style is that of the Dieppe school of mapmakers; and, based upon that distinctive style, it was probably made about 1544 by either Pierre Desceliers or Jean Rotz." (

The Newport Tower is illustrated on this map, possibly in two places within Narragansett Bay.

The first illustration is on the eastern side of the bay, attached to the shoreline. There is a rectangular column which obscures the shoreline definition. The inshore boundary of this feature is marked by a horizontal black line. From this black line there is another black line which extends to the north at a slant. This feature has a color hue which is different than the shoreline. We have found these same illustrative elements on other depictions of the tower.

The second tower illustration is on the opposite shoreline. There is a black feature, possibly two-tiered, with extends from the headland out into the bay. Again, the shoreline attachment and extension into the bay is found on over 50% of the illustrations thus far.

Unfortunately, the available digital image of the map, while excellent for viewing, begins to lose resolution as the magnification is increased. The image gets a bit too fuzzy to really give a distinctive presentation. That being said, there is still enough clarity to make the call that it illustrates the Newport Tower.

This is another Dieppe-related map. Jean Rotz made the c. 1535-1542 Rotz Atlas - which also depicts the Newport Tower.

We are already corresponding with the British Library to see if we can get a higher resolution photo of just the Narragansett Bay area.