The kinship of Egypt and Africa

Sep 2011
“Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men… They say also that the Egyptians are colonist sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been the leader of the colony… and add the larger part of the customs of the Egyptians are, they hold, Ethiopian, the colonists still preserving their ancient manners. For instance, the belief that their kings are gods, the very special attention which they pay their burials and many other matters of a similar nature are Ethiopian practices, while the shapes of their statues and the forms of their letters are Ethiopian.” Diodorus of Sicily.

Diodorus drew is account most from the books of Agarharchides of Cnidus and the geographer Artemidoros of Ephesos, as well as from certain other historians whose homes were in Egypt. Diodorus corroborated these written accounts, he says, by conversing with Egyptians priests during his stay in Egypt and by consulting “with not a few ambassadors from Ethiopia… who were then in Egypt.” On the strength of these inquiries, Diodoros confidently concluded that Agatharchides, Artemidoros, and the rest had been “accurate in all they written.”

Many archaeology, anthropology, and linguistics show that may key aspects of Egyptians culture were indeed brought up from the south by migrating African colonists. The Afro-Asiatic language from which the Egyptian language descended almost certainly came from the south. Joseph Greenberg pointed to Ethiopia as the homeland of this ancestral language. Another linguist, Christopher Ehret, concluded that Afro-asiatic speakers lived on a strip of land stretching along the red sea coast all the way from Nubia to northern Somalia. Also, this territory seems to encompass the fabled land of punt, lending support of the theory that punt was the ancestral homeland of some of the Egyptians’ ancestors. Ehret believes that a group of Afro-asiatic speakers left their homeland between 12,000 and 10,000 B.C. and migrated north into Egypt. Archaeologists have confirmed that early settlers from this region brought many of the skills, customs, and beliefs from which Egyptian civilization was built.

In ancient Egypt, the king was not supposed to reign unless he was in good health. Originally, when his strength declined, he was really put to death. Many African societies would put their kings to death when they showed signs of weakness or old age. For example, the king of the varozwe, a Shona people of Zimbabwe was strangled to death as soon as his hair began to gray, his teeth to fall out, his sight to fail, or his sexual potency to dimishish. A 16th century Portuguese traveler named J.Dos Santos recorded a similar customs of the kings of Sofala. He wrote “it was formerly the custom of the king of this land to commit suicide by taking poison when any disaster or natural physical defect fell upon them, such as impotence, infectious disease, the loss of their front teeth, by which they were disfigured, or any other deformity or affliction.”

Most importantly ancient Egyptians are known for their mummies. In fact, African people did mummify their dead, much like the Egyptians. Some would smoke dry their deceased kings, warp their bodies in cloth, and keep them at hand unburied, for years at a time. Often the internal organs would be removed, as in Egyptians mummies. When Sonni Ali, the emperor of Songhai, died in 1492, for example, his sons gutted his body and filled it with honey.
Ancestor worship provides another cultural link between Egypt and the rest of Africa. Most African peoples impute to the souls of dead ancestors a godlike ability to bring good or bad fortune to living. Ancestral spirits, for that reason, are placated with rich offering and elaborate rituals to want thier favor. The souls of dead kings, in particular, are revered for their power and wisdom. In Uganda, kings are believed to continue watching over their people long after death. Special temples are built through which their spirits can be consulted for advice.

Egyptian regilion reveals its African roots in many other respects as well. Greek and roman writers expressed shock at the menagerie of cats, snakes, donkeys, birds, crocodiles, beetles, hippopotami, cattle, and baboons that populated the Egyptian pantheon. Yet, animal god remain, to this day, a characteristics features of many African cults. Like so many other Africans, the Egyptians wore masks and animals’ tails during religious rites and used hand clapping in their festivals. Egyptian boys and girls were subjected to circumcisions, possibly as a rite passages to adulthood. Male and female circumcision remains, to this day, a widespread practice throughout Africa.
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Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
I always heard paupers are rare in places like Ghana and Benin. Even in large urban areas. Simply because family is expected to care for the poor. Our own mansamusa remarked -rightly - how this reflected the common origin of African civilizations and provided a very interesting quote from Ian Shaw, in many ways pertinent to the subject of divine kingship:
"The concept of imakhu (which can also be translated as ‘being provided for’) was an expression of a remarkable moral dictum that ran through all levels of Egyptian society and that corrected the extreme cases of social inequality: it was the duty of a more influential and richer person to take care of the poor and socially disadvantaged in the same way as the head of a family was responsible for all of its members." - Shaw, Ian (2004-02-19). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (Kindle Locations 2131-2134). Oxford University Press, USA. Kindle Edition

Nov 2015
Nigerian linkage to ancient Kemet examined.

There was clearly a mass migration of not only Yoruba, but Niger-Congo, Nilo Saharan and Cu****ic speakers from Northeastern Africa (Nubia-Kemet) into more interior regions of Africa around the 6th century BC or the Persian invasion. With the exception of the Twa/pygmies and the Khoisan the other African groups were absent in the interior regions of the continent save the Mande of Saharan West Africa (who created Dhar Tichitt-rivaling in age and culture with ancient Kemet). The reason for these migrations were clearly because of the steady incursion of Asiatic foreigners whom the African Kemites attempted to bar from the land (who the older Nubians barred wholesale) in the main, but tolerated small scale migration. The Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs were the foreign occupiers of this African land when the original African inhabitants finally had enough and migrated into the homeland of Napata, and then scattered throughout the various regions of "Sub Saharan Africa" (a silly baseless Western term) where many of them continued the old traditions practiced in their ancestral civilizations. The constant movement throughout Sub Saharan Africa, and the newly found distrust from the once unified Africans made settlement process long and almost never ending. Between hostile nation states and unsuitable natural environments the Africans constantly had to rebuild from scratch (this is why judging Africans "accomplishments based on their most recent genesis of migrations is a marker of profound ignorance of African history. The videos below further explain!

1. Wu (rise) Wu (rise)
2. Ausa (Osiris, father of the gods) Ausa (father)
3. Ere (python/ Serpent) Ere (Python / Serpent)
4. Horise (a great god) Orise (a great god)
5. Sen (group of worshippers) Sen ( to worship)
6. Ged (to chant0 Igede (a chant)
7. Ta (sell / offer) Ta (sell/offer)
8. Sueg (a fool) Suegbe (a fool)
9. On ( living person) One ( living person)
10. Kum (a club) Kumo( a club)
11. Enru (fear / terrible) Eru (fear / terrible
12. Kun / qun (brave man) Ekun (title of a brave man)
13. Win (to be) Wino (to be)
14. Odonit (festival) Odon (festival)
15. Ma or mi (to breath) Mi. (to breathe)
16. Tebu (a town) Tebu (a town)
17. Adumu (a water god) Adumu (a water god)
18. Khu (to kill) Ku (die)
19. Rekha (knowledge} Larikha (knowledge)
20 Hika (evil) Ika (evil)
21 Mhebi (humble) Mebi, humble to ones family
22 Sata (perfect) Santan (perfect)
23 Unas (lake of fire) Una (fire)
24 Tan (complete) Tan (complete)
25 Beru (force of emotion) Beru (fear)
26 Em (smell) Emi (smell)
27 Pa (open) Pa (break open)
28 Bi (to become) Bi (to give birth, to become)
29 Hepi (a water god) Ipi (a water god)
30 Sami (water god) Sami (a water god)
31 Osiri (a water god) Oshiri (a water god)
32 Heqet – Re (frog deity) Ekere (the frog)
33 Feh (to go away) Feh (to blow away)
34 Kot (build) Ko (build)
35 Kot (boat) Oko (boat)
36 Omi (water) Omi (water)
37 Ra (time) Ira (time)
38 Oni (title of Osiris) Oni (title of the king of Ife)
39 Budo (dwelling place) Budo (dwelling place)
40 Dudu (black image of Osiris) Dudu (black person)
41 Un (living person) Una (living person)
42 Ra (possess) Ra (possess/buy)
43 Beka (pray/confess) Be or ka (to pray or confess)
44 Po (many) Po (many/cheap)
45 Horuw (head) middle Egyptian Oruwo (head) (Ijebu)
46 Min (a god) Emin (spirit)
47 Ash (invocation) Ashe (invocation)
48 Aru (mouth) Arun (mouth ) Ilaje
49 Do (river) Odo (river)
50 Do (settlement) Udo (settlement)
51 Shekiri (water god) Shekiri (a water god)
52 Bu (a place) Bu ,a place
53 Khepara (beetle Akpakara (beetle)
54 No (a water god Eno (a water god)
55 Ra -Shu (light after darkness Uran-shu (the light of the moon
56 Run-ka (spirit name) Oruko (name)
57 Deb/dib to pierce Dibi (to pierce)
58 Maat (goddess of justice Mate (goddess of justice)
59 Aru (rise) Ru (rise up)
60 Fa (carry) Fa (pull)
61 Kaf (pluck) Ka (pluck)
62 Bu bi (evil place) Bubi (evil place)
63 In- n (negation In-n (negation)
64 Iset (a water god) Ise (a water god)
65 Shabu (watcher) Ashonbo (watcher)
66 Semati (door keeper) Sema (lock/shut the door)
67 Khenti amenti (big words of Osiris Yenti – yenti (big, very big)
68 Ma (to know) Ma (to know)
69 Bebi, a son of osiris) Ube, a god
70 Tchatcha chief (they examined the death to see if they tricked tsatsa (a game of tricks, gambling )
71 Ren( animal foot) Ren (to walk)
72 Ka (rest) Ka (rest/tired)
73 Mu (water) Mu (drink water)
74 Abi (against) Ubi (against / impediment)
75 Reti (to beseech) Retin (to listen)
76 Hir (praise) Yiri (praise)
77 Ta(spread out) Ta (spread out)
78 Kurud (round) Kurudu (round)
79 Ak – male Ako (male)
80 Se – to create Se (to create)
81 Hoo (rejoice) Yo (rejoice)
82 Kamwr (black) Kuru (extremely black
83 Omitjener (deep water) Omijen (deep water)
84 Nen, the primeval water mother) Nene (mother
85 Ta (land) Ita (land junction)
86 Horiwo (head) Oriwo (head)
87 Ro (talk) Ro (to think)
88 Kurubu (round) Kurubu (deep and round)
89 Penka (divide) Kpen (divide)
90 Ma-su (to mould) Ma or su (to mould)
91 Osa (time) Osa (time)
92 Osa (tide) Osa ( tide)
93 Fare (wrap) Fari (wrap)
94 Kom (complete) Kon (complete)
95 Edjo (cobra) Edjo (cobra)
96 Didi (red fruit) Diden (red)
97 Ba (soul) Oba (king) soul of a people
98 Ke (hill) Oke( hill
99 Anubis (evil deity) Onubi (evil person)
100 Kan (one: Middle Egyptian) Okan one)
101 Nam (water god) Inama (water god)

The debate on whether the ancient Egyptians influenced or migrated to West Africa has been studied by various scholars for a long period of time (cf. Parrinder 1951:198). Writers of West African history, who have an interest in the Yorubas of Nigeria, are of the opinion that there were migrations between Egypt and Yorubaland, yet others refute this theory. Some say that the Yorubas came from Israel and landed in Yorubaland. However, the theory that the Yorubas originated in Israel has rather made little or no impact on the Yorubas because the Israelites' culture, especially about the afterlife beliefs (cf. Agai 2011:195; Lucas 1970:382-388) and linguistic phraseology differs immensely from those of the Yorubas (Parrinder 1951:199).

Reverend Samuel Johnson has been writing the history of the Yorubas for about 20 years and his manuscript The history of the Yorubas: From the earliest times to the beginning of the British protectorate was first sent for publication in 1899 but was published only in 1921 and reprinted in 2001 (Johnson 1921:viii). A number of writers of the Yoruba history especially from the beginning of the early 20th century until the present, rely on the writings of Johnson as a fundamental source of knowledge with regard to understanding the Yoruba connection with ancient Egypt (cf. Akintoye 2004:3). Johnson relied on some cultural similarities between the Egyptians and the Yorubas (Johnson 1921:6-7). He also relied on Yoruba's oral history as his main source of information concerning Yoruba origins; some of his sources are renowned Yoruba oral historians like Josiah Oni, Venerable Lagunju (the Timi of Ede) and many more (Johnson 1921:viii).2
Nov 2015

Johnson argues that past historians, including Yoruba oral historians, say that the Yorubas originate from the east and he agrees with these statements as their culture proves. However, Johnson explains that the east, according to the understanding of Yoruba historians did not literally mean Mecca as it was perceived but Egypt in North-East Africa. Johnson regards Sultan Mohammed Bello as one of the earliest writers of Nigerian history, whose writings apparently influenced the Yorubas to begin to think that they originated in Mecca instead of Egypt (Johnson 1921:1:5-6). Johnson maintains that the ancestors of the Yorubas were Coptic Christians from Egypt (Johnson 1921:6-7).

Another prominent writer of West African history, who linked the Egyptians to the Yorubas, is the Venerable Archdeacon J. Olumide Lucas. He was a former Pastor of St. Paul's Church, Breadfruit in Lagos, Nigeria. Lucas discusses the various forms of spirits, gods and ancestors worshipped by the Yorubas. He argues that these same deities were worshipped in ancient Egypt.3 Furthermore, Lucas believes that ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, emblems, symbols and formulae have survived in West Africa. He claims that some of the survivals are traced back to different periods of ancient Egyptian history: firstly the predynastic period; secondly, the dynastic period as well as the Greek and Roman times. Lucas notes that the survivals are still in use especially in the form of a metaphysical outlook on life, notably amongst the Ashanti, in Togoland, Yorubaland and Ekoiland (Lucas 1970:iii).

On the impact of ancient Egypt on West African thought, Parrinder writes that caution needs to be exercised simply because there is little or no archaeological evidence showing that the Egyptians migrated to Yorubaland except by assumption, otherwise the subject should be left open for further debate (Parrinder 1951:198). He notes that if there were any contact between the Egyptians and the Yorubas, then such contact might have taken place during the Egyptian predynastic and dynastic periods only. Parrinder admits to a possible Egyptian influence on the Yorubas but he believes that the Arab world made more cultural impact on the Yorubas than Egypt did (Parrinder 1951:205-209). An opponent of the Egyptian theory of the Yoruba origin is Leo Frobenius who was a trained anthropologist and explorer. Frobenius thinks that the civilisation or culture of the Yorubas is not of Egyptian origin but Etruscan which was centred in North Africa. He calls this culture or theory the 'Atlantic theory'. By implication, Frobenius is of the opinion that the Yorubas are not of Egyptian origin and hence the Egyptians did not migrate to Yorubaland (cf. Frobenius 1913:336).

One of the implications for the writings of these early 20th century writers of West African history is that the minds of many contemporary Yorubas have been influenced to think that their ancestors originate in Egypt or Arabia.4 Folorunso (2003:83) for example, thinks that Yoruba ancestors came from Egypt, in other words, Folorunso believes that the Egyptians migrated to Yorubaland. Agai (2013a:1-2) states, that whilst in Yorubaland, he discovered that many Yorubas attributed their origins to ancient Egypt and other Yorubas he interviewed said they originated in Arabia. Umoh (1971:116) says that even the Yorubas themselves believe that they originated in Egypt. The religions of Christianity and Islam, colonialism, the ideology that Egypt was the cradle of human civilisation, the Yoruba creation of myth and many other factors might have influenced the minds of these early 20th century writers of West African history to begin to think that Egypt had had contact with Yorubaland, yet these factors will not be discussed in detail in this research. This research discusses the theories of the Egyptian contact with the ancient Nigerians especially with the Yorubas. The researcher attempts to answer the question: did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

Why did the Egyptians migrate?

The debate on whether ancient Egypt was a part or not a part of the African continent has once more shed light on the relevance of ancient Egypt as 'Africa's dark browed queen'5 (Folorunso 2003:84).6 The debate demonstrates that Egypt was relevant to the ancient world and that it attracted the attention of many people including the Semitic peoples, other Africans and the Grecians (Adamo 2010:475; O'Connor & Reid 2003:1-5). Other writers regard Africa and Egypt in particular, as the place where human civilisation emerged (Folorunso 2003:89). The role of Africa as the centre of civilisation can be argued, yet there can be no doubt that Egypt played a great role in human civilisation.7 The fact that ancient Egypt has been perceived as a centre of civilisation, a commercial harbour, a religious centre of attraction and a refuge for the persecuted, is relevant with regard to understanding the contents of this research.

The search for gold and other minerals

Gold was regarded as a sacred commodity by early civilisations (3000-2000 BCE) and it was used as a symbol for wealth and social status (Le Roux 2008:7). The Phoenicians,8 the Egyptians, and the Greeks traded in gold in Egypt since the 6th century BCE.9 There was insufficient presence of gold in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and this prompted trade in other commodities (Clark 1970:219). The commodities that were traded between the ancient Egyptians, the Phoenicians and West Africans included: metals, weapons, ivory and textiles (Boshoff & Scheffler 2000:38; Clark 1970:15). Also, the bronze and brass casting of Nok terracotta (500 BCE - 200 CE) in northern Nigeria, the art from Igbo-Ukwu near Enugu (Shinnie 1965:80-81) in eastern Nigeria, and the Yoruba's famous Ife bronze heads in western Nigeria are similar to those of the Egyptians (Clark 1970:214-216). Johnson (1921) also points out that the 'Ife Marbles' are similar in form to

Egyptian sculptures. He reiterated that at present, about three or four of the forms of these sculptures can be seen in the Egyptian Court of the British Museum (Agai 2013a:14), 'showing at a glance that they are among kindred works of art' (Johnson 1921:6-7). There is no evidence at the moment showing that the ancient Egyptians entered into Nigeria strictly for trade in gold and other natural minerals.

Escape from wars

In 700 BCE the Ku****e king, Kashta invaded and conquered Egypt, he ruled as far north as Thebes, the capital of Upper Egypt, and his son Piankhy completed the conquest of Egypt; he ruled from all the shores of the Mediterranean through to the borders of modern Ethiopia (Shinnie 1965:23-24, 34). Assurbanipal controlled the territory of Egypt since 721 BCE, and in 664 BCE, Psamtik I Sias escaped Assyrian control of Egypt and founded the 26th Dynasty and won Upper Egypt as a result. Nicho II the successor of Psamtik I Sias defeated and killed Josiah in 608 BCE (Caldwell & Gyles 1966:161). In 589 BCE, Pharaoh Apries of Egypt collaborated with Zedekiah to fight against Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar through his chief army captain Nebuzaradan, invaded Judah in 586 BCE (2 Ki 25:8-21; Jr 52:12-14), and this led to the dispersion of the Jews to Egypt and from Egypt to other parts of Africa (Le Roux 2008:15).

Furthermore, in 570 BCE, a war against the Greek colony of Cyrene, which ended in an Egyptian defeat, caused the overthrow of Apries. He was succeeded by the general Amasis (Amosis II) who was the last great Saite pharaoh, and under his reign Egypt prospered, but Cambyses invaded Egypt once more and he finally overthrew the Saite dynasty, and crowned himself pharaoh. Cambyses died in 522 BCE (Caldwell & Gyles 1966:162, 166). Alexander the Great also seized power in Egypt in 332 BCE12 (Shinnie 1965:23-24, 34). The various alliances of Egypt with militarily weak nations might have led mostly to their defeat, and the foreign invasions of Egypt have also led some Egyptians to migrate to other parts of Africa. It is likely that a relative peace was enjoyed in other parts of Africa, more so than in the Ancient Near East or the Greco-Roman empire which was then concerned about gaining territorial control thus resulting in various wars. It can logically be suggested that some Egyptians may have travelled to West Africa in order to escape the wars
Nov 2015
Who were the Egyptians that migrated to Nigeria?

(Nigerian pyramids of another ethnic group from Kemet)

Predynastic and dynastic Egyptians

It has been speculated that most of the contact between West Africa and the ancient Egyptians took place on the whole during the predynastic and dynastic periods. This theory is mainly propagated by Lucas and Parrinder both of whom accept the view that there was direct communication between Egypt and West Africa during these two periods: 'I imagine that this is not contested. Western black Africa has its communications with the western basin of the Mediterranean, directly, across the Sahara' (Parrinder 1951:200).

Parrinder thinks that only the predynastic and dynastic Egyptians made serious impacts on West Africans, and that these impacts became less, giving way to Islamic and Arabian impacts especially amongst the Yorubas (Parrinder 1951:205-209). He saw similarities of predynastic and dynastic Egyptian cultures with those of the Yorubas, and these cultures included: lack of attempts at mummification, probably no clothing except by ruling families who made knickers of goat and deer skins, used animal skins for clothing, tattooing of their bodies with lines and animal figures, and totemistic beliefs (Parrinder 1951:202-203).13

Both the ancient Egyptians and the Yorubas recognised the existence and the supremacy of a supreme deity but worshipped local deities and ancestors. In both cultures, kings were regarded as divine authorities, certain animals as sacred, and certain forms of festivals involving dancing and singing were practiced. Magic and the use of amulets were important in the daily lives and in the afterlife beliefs of both cultures. Body mutilations practiced in ancient Egypt also found their way to the Yorubas, these practices included: circumcision, excision, shaving and piercing of ears and nose. These kinds of Yoruba cultures were also practiced during the predynastic and dynastic periods of ancient Egypt (Agai 2013a:14; cf. Lucas 1970:412-413). However, Parrinder (1951:200) admits that archaeological evidence for migration between Nigeria and Egypt, particularly during the predynastic and dynastic periods is lacking. The routes and the means of travel those ancient Egyptians assumedly used to journey to Nigeria cannot be proven. Despite the presence of some Egyptian cultural remnants in western Nigeria, people who could be identified clearly as remnants of predynastic and dynastic Egyptians in Nigeria are lacking.


This theory is based on a Yoruba legend.14 The presence of Egyptian culture found amongst some Nigerian tribes15 and especially the Yorubas, made some writers observe that the Yorubas were of Egyptian origin or that the Yorubas were highly influenced by the Egyptians through some form of physical contact in Yorubaland. If Oduduwa is actually of Egyptian origin, and considering his monarchical and possible genetic influences on the Yorubas, it can be assumed that the Yorubas are mixed remnants of the Egyptians in Nigeria. This is so because Oduduwa met some inhabitants in Yorubaland and interbreeding might have taken place between Oduduwa, his followers and those early inhabitants of Yorubaland. This view is not proven scientifically and the origin and authenticity of the Oduduwa legend itself is still under scrutiny.

Kings of Kukuwa and Gogobir (Gobir)

According to the Oduduwa legend, his two children who left 'Mecca' or the 'east' alongside himself both became kings of Kukuwa and Gogobir in northern Nigeria (Ayandele 2004:122; Umoh 1971:116). There is no historical record to support this assertion and it is not known when the children of Oduduwa began to rule these two Hausa kingdoms, Kokuwa and Gobir. Gobir in particular is rather more significant in the history of the Hausa people than in the history of the Yorubas (Shinnie 1965:62). Historical records support that the Hausas have always been the rulers of Gobir. Recorded kings of Gobir include Babari, who was succeeded by Bawa Jan Gwarzo and ruled from 1770-1795, and later by his brother Mallam Yakuba(u) (Omolewa 2008:44).

There is no evidence that the children of Oduduwa ever lived in Kokuwa and Gobir and the names of the known kings of Gobir have not any connection with the Yorubas but with the Hausa people. Yorubas indeed did trade with northern Nigeria in exchange for clothes, kola nuts and food as early as 1300 CE (Shinnie 1965:81). The people of Gobir and Kukuwa still maintain distinctive tribal marks as do the Yorubas (Ojo 1999:5) and apart from trade and Islamic influences upon some Hausas and some Yorubas, there is actually not any serious cultural connection between the Yorubas and the Hausas of Kukuwa or Gobir. It is for this reason that Shinnie (1965:79) says 'there is, however, no real evidence to suggest that the Yoruba ever lived in any part of Africa other than the western area where they still live'.

Adventurers and traders

One astonishing report about an early relationship between Nigeria and ancient Egypt is the one presented by Flora Shaw.16 She noted that there had been an old record which says that Egyptian Pharaohs visited Nigeria long before the advent of Christianity:

I abridge from Macrizi an account of an eleven years' expedition of one of the Pharaohs into the west and south, which seems definitely to confer upon Borgu17 the honour of connecting the existing territory of British Northern Nigeria with the Egypt known to us in the Old Testament. The expedition took place some 1700 years before Christ. The Pharaoh was king of Egypt when 'a young Syrian, of the name of "Joseph the Truthful", was sold by his brothers into Egypt.' The Pharaoh of Joseph was known by many names. Amongst them the Copts gave him the name of 'Barkhou'.18 (Folorunso 2003:78)

Folorunso (2003:78) admits that even though Shaw did not expatiate on this statement, yet, the statement suggests that an Egyptian pharaoh visited northern Nigeria - not Yorubaland - for trade or adventure long before the advent of Christianity. It also seems that the purpose of the visit was not to settle in Nigeria. The known periods that Egyptians travelled to Nigeria are after the advent of Christianity; for example, history taught that an Egyptian adventurer Rabeh in 1870 was given Negro soldiers by the Arabs. He led the soldiers towards the shores of Kordofan, Wadai until they arrived at Borno in northern Nigeria. In 1893, Rabeh chased away the Sultan of Borno and held the province in a state of subjugation until he was attacked and killed in 1900 (Lucas 1970:400-401). Other historical records reveal that Nigerians had travelled to Egypt as well for religious reasons. For example, it has been recorded that in the 11th century CE, the people of Kanem Borno, from whom Borno derived its dynasty of kings as well as a large proportion of its population, had a settlement of their own at Cairo. Ever since, thousands of Muslim pilgrims from West Africa have annually visited and even settled in the Egyptian Sudan (Lucas 1970:400-401).
Nov 2015
In conclusion this research accepts the following:

The Yorubas have a high regard for the Oduduwa legend and many of them see the legend as the most preferred means with regard to understanding their origins, their main influencers and their earliest system of monarchical governance. Oduduwa, his sons Kukuwa and Gogobiri, could not have been the original ancestors of the Yorubas or the Hausas. Yoruba legend teaches that there were people living in Yorubaland before Oduduwa's arrival (Johnson 1921:4), but the identity of these people is unknown. Also, information concerning preferred routes and the exact distances that Oduduwa20 and his followers assumedly travelled to Nigeria and to Yorubaland is not known hence the Yoruba or Oduduwa legend did not provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the Egyptians migrated to Nigeria.
The ancient Egyptians were not known to be too keen about travelling and to adapt so much to foreign cultures (Burland 1957:62-63). Trade, adventure and escape from wars might have led some of them to travel to other parts of the world, but travelling to stay in other countries seemed not to be one of their preferences. Furthermore, the absence of a known and generally acceptable descendant of Egyptians in Nigeria suggests that the Egyptians did not live in Nigeria permanently. The very few historical records supporting possible visits of very few Egyptians into northern Nigeria and not Yorubaland, show that those possible visits were mostly done sometime from the 11th century CE onwards when humans had already developed advanced means of travel. Yet, there is no evidence that those Egyptians left specific landmarks that indicated their presence in Nigeria.
No one knows precisely the origins of the methods of specialised bronze and brass castings in Nigeria, and the reasons for the similarities between the Nok terracottas (500 BCE - 200 CE), the art from Igbo-Ukwu near Enugu (Shinnie 1965:80-81), and the Yoruba art that produced the famous Ife bronze heads and those of ancient Egyptians (Clark 1970:214-216). These arts found in Nigeria might have been produced independently of any foreign culture and that is why 'archaeologists are looking at the possibility that West Africans developed iron-working technology autonomously, possibly starting with the Nok' (Atwood 2013:14).

Early 20th century writers of Yoruba history like Johnson (1921), Lucas (1948, 1970) and Parrinder (1951) all suggest that the Egyptians migrated to Yorubaland particularly during the predynastic and dynastic periods and their speculation is based on the existence of certain cultures shared by the Yorubas and the Egyptians. These three authors together with Frobenius (1913) who in particular is of the opinion that Etruscan culture passed through North Africa to Yorubaland, have not been able to provide any archaeological evidence which supports their hypothesis. In the view of this researcher, the cultures shared between the Yorubas and the Egyptians together with the civilisations of the Yorubas might have been developed independently in accordance with their specific environmental formations21 or the Yorubas might have learnt and developed those cultures from a specific source alongside the Egyptians.
It makes sense to believe that the search for gold, other minerals, black slaves and the escape from wars prompted some ancient Egyptians to emigrate temporarily from Egypt to other parts of the Semitic world and to Africa as well. Even if they had temporarily and possibly only visited northern Nigeria, yet, there might have been only very few of them and they did not leave any evidence to this claim. There is clearly no evidence that the ancient Egyptians visited or lived in Yorubaland. This research is open for further interpretation and re-interpretation especially with regard to the search for further evidence that the ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians either in Nigeria or in Egypt before the advent of Christianity.

More Information- Context

Other Nigerian cultural overlaps with ancient Kemet -

Yoruba Obatala

Nubia-Kemetic Bes

It's quite clear what has happened when everything is put into proper context! Africans of the interior are the real "Egyptians". Everyone else pretending to be simply because they occupy the land are imposters to the culture.
Nov 2015
The Egyptians as They Saw Themselves
"The Egyptians had only one term to designate themselves =kmt= the Negroes (literally). This is the strongest term existing in the Pharaonic tongue to indicate blackness; it is accordingly written with a hieroglyph representing a length of wood charred at the end and not crocodile scales," singular. ‘Kmt’ from the adjective =kmt= black; it therefore means strictly Negroes or at the very least black men. The term is a collective noun which thus described the whole people of Pharaonic Egypt as a black people."

Divine Epithets
Diop demonstrates that "black or Negro" is the divine epithet invariably used for the chief beneficent Gods of Egypt, while the evil spirits were depicted as red.

Evidence From the Bible
The Bible states"…[t]he sons of Ham [were] Cush and Mizraim [i.e. Egypt], and Phut, and Canaan. And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah and Sabtechah." According to Biblical tradition, Ham, of course, was the father of the Black race. "Generally speaking all Semitic tradition (Jewish and Arab) class ancient Egypt with the countries of the Black."

Cultural unity of Egypt With The Rest of Africa

Through a study of circumcision and totemism. Diop gives detailed data showing cultural unity between Egypt and the rest of Africa.


King Tut's headrest

Modern day African incorporating ancient traditional headrest with everyday life (the connection is as obvious as Diop had stated)


Kemetian art, like any other, speaks for itself. For instance, Kemetian art had certain features that were similar to that of other ancient African culture. You'll see what I mean...

Nursing Woman. From Giza: 5th Dynasty (ca. 2420-2389 B.C.E). Limestone with remains of paint. (courtesy of metmuseum)

Akan [Ghana] wood carving of a female breast-feeding a young one; not unlike the theme being communicated in the ancient Egyptian rendition above.

Parallels in color conventions

Noting distinction between the Kemites and the Nubians (who are the same people forming a bio-cultural continuum) in certain ancient depictions is one of the favorite tactics of deceptive pale Devils to imply a racial separation along the Hapi River. They try to impose their own illogical thinking process to interpret the situation.The ignore the true social-political implications behind the depictions.

In the depiction below is another depiction of the Dahomey kingdom in modern day Nigeria depicting themselves in the exact same red skin tone as the ancient Kemites, while depicting their equally melaninated neighbors in jet black skin tone.

"The ancient Egyptians were not the only ones to depict their fellow dark skin African neighbors in dual contrasting tones. the following image shows a conflict between the Fon warriors and their Yoruba counterparts. Both of these groups would generally be seen as dark skin peoples, but from the image below, this might not be immediately apparent to anyone unfamiliar with these peoples. "

Rulers Depicted as Giants

Notice how both the Kemetic pharaoh and Dahomey king are depicted as giant rulers, and have one hand sticking out while being served by smaller humans. More proof of this diffusion of people and culture from the Hapi Valley into interior regions of Africa is shown in the appearance of the ancient Kemetic spiritual system being shown in these other African cultures. The Osirian crock and flail were sported by the kings of inner Africa. Notice that the Dahomey king holds the traditional Osirion Crock while the ancient Kemetic figure holds the Flail. It's also note worthy...that the color scheme of the Dahomey (Nigeria) are not depicting "black skinned" people despite us knowing that these people were/are still melaninated "black" Africans. It's also worth noting how these little Damomey citizens are shaped almost identically (even pointy noses) to how the ancient Mesopotamians depicted themselves.

Dahomey Kingdom (Nigeria)

Linguistic Unity With Southern and Western Africa
In a detailed study of languages, Diop clearly demonstrates that Ancient Egyptian, modern Coptic of Egypt and Walaf of West Africa are related, with the latter two having their origin in the former.

"Pharaonic Egyptian - Wolof; (Wolof meaning)

Aku - Aku : foreigners (Creole descendants of European traders and African wives)

anu - K.enou : pillar

atef - ate : a crown of Osiris, judge of the soul (to judge)

ba - bei : the ram-god (goat)

ben ben - ben ben : overflow, flood

bon - bon : evil

bu - bu : place

bu bon - bu bon : evil place

bu nafret - bu rafet : good place

da - da : child

Djoob - Djob : a surname

fero - fari : king

itef - itef : father

kau - kaou : elevated, above (heaven)

kem -khem : black (burnt, burnt black)

kemat - kematef : end of a period, completion, limit

khekh - khekh : to fight, to wage war, war

kher - ker : country (house)

lebou - Lebou : those at the stream, Lebou/fishermen Senegal

maat - mat : justice

mer - maar : love (passionate love)

mun - won : buttocks

nag - nag : bull (cattle)

nak - nak : ox, bull (cow)

NDam - NDam : throne

neb - ndab : float

nen - nen : place where nothing is done (nothingness)

nit - nit : citizen

Ntr - Twr : protecting god, totem

nwt - nit : fire of heaven (evening light)

o.k. - wah keh : correct, right

onef - onef : he (past tense)

ones - ones : she (past tense)

Diop's highlighted list.

Testimony of Classical Greek and Roman Authors

Virtually all of the early Latin eyewitnesses described the Ancient Egyptians as Black skinned with woolly hair.

Jul 2019
New Jersey

Just to quibble on the area which I actually know something about, where does the Bible ever say that the descendants of Ham were black? I get that there are some later traditions to that effect, but none recorded earlier than 1,800 years ago or so.
This all looks suspiciously like the Black Athena propaganda, but what do I know about Ancient Africa?
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Nov 2015

Just to quibble on the area which I actually know something about, where does the Bible ever say that the descendants of Ham were black? I get that there are some later traditions to that effect, but none recorded earlier than 1,800 years ago or so.
Firstly the name "Ham" comes from the name of Khamet/Kemet/etc etc which means "black" or "black land" in reference to "ancient Egypt" (renamed and branded as such by the Greek invaders). The son's of "kham" were of course Kemet/Egypt, Kush/Nubia, Somalia, and Canaan. What's interesting is that something that is not talked about much is that Mesopotamia's supposed founder "Nimrod" was the son of Kush, which logically makes that civilization "black" as well according to the Bible (interestingly sufficient archaeological and anthropological evidence supports a Nubian origins for Sumer).

This all looks suspiciously like the Black Athena propaganda, but what do I know about Ancient Africa?
I am very much in support of an African origin for ancient Minoan and pre classical Greek civilization. I think that Eurocentrism had a juvenile reaction to facts that have for over a century been known to researchers, but simply suppressed in the name of white supremacy (or the moral justification for inflicting the worst abuse to a people known to man). In fact at the turn of the 20th century Black Athena"/"Afrocentrism" was promoted by honest Europeans who objectively added context to the evidence;

Ancient Greek coinage (the coinage of black people throughout the early Mediterranean civilizations is so numerous)



WHEN this little book was first published in an Italian edition in 1895, and in a German edition in 1897, I was still unable to obtain many anthropological data needed to complete tha picture of the primitive inhabitants of Europe. In the English edition the book is less incomplete, richer in anthropological and ethnological documents, and hence more conclusive; it also contains replies to various objections which have been brought forward. This English edition, therefore, is not so much a translation of a work already published as a new book, both in form and arrangement

The conclusions I have sought to maintain are the following :- +

(1.) The primitive populations of Europe, after Homo Neandertkalensis, originated in Africa; these constituted the entire population of Neolithic times.

(2.) The basin of the Mediterranean was the chief centre of movement whence the African migrations reached the centre and the north of Europe.

(3.) From the great African stock were formed three varieties, in accordance with differing telluric and geographic conditions: one,.,peculiarly African, remaining in the continent where it originated; another, .the Mediterranean, which occupied the basin of that sea; and a third, the Nordtic:, which reached the north of Europe. These three varieties are the three great branches of one species, which I call Eurafrican, because it occupied, and still occupies, a large portion of the two continents of Africa and Europe.

(4) These three human varieties have nothing in common with the so-called Aryan races; it is an error to maintain that the Germans and the Scandinavians, blond dolichocephals or long-heads (of the Reihengraber and Viking types), are Aryans; they . are Eurafricans of the Nordic variety.

(5.) The Aryans are of Asiatic origin, and constitute a variety of the Eurafrican: species,• the physical characters of their skeletons are different from those of the Eurafricans.

(6.) The primitive civilisation of the Eurafricans is Afro-Mediterranean, becoming eventually AfroEuropean.

(7.) The Mycenrean civilisation had its origin in Asia, and was transformed by diffusion in the Mediterranean.

(8.) The two classic civilisations, Greek and Latin; were not Aryan, but Mediterranean. The Aryans were savages when they invaded Europe: they destroyed in part the superior civilisation of the Neolithic populations, and could not have created the Greco-Latin civilization

(9.) In the course of the Aryan invasions the languages of the Eurafrican species in Europe were transformed in Italy, Greece, and elsewhere, Celtic, German, Slavonic, etc., being genuine branches of the Aryan tongue; in other cases the Aryan languages underwent a transformation, preserving some elements of the conquered tongues, as in the NeoCeltic of Wales. Some of these conclusions no longer arouse the same opposition as when I first brought them forward. The arguments meeting with most resistance are those tending to overthrow the ancient conception of an Aryan civilization.


ROME, February, 1901."​

Europeans went as far as killing the author of the book "Stolen Legacy" for bringing this evidence to the forefront. They are definitely trying to cover up some facts on ancient Greek origins. Today they're resorting to what many have pointed out as blatant dishonesty with regards to genetic haplogroup assignments to reestablish a fictional narrative that devoids the civilization of it's African origins.
Jul 2019
New Jersey
Yeah.... this is what I suspected. I'll bow out now.

With these crypto-black people everywhere in antiquity, one wonders where the whites even came from, let alone where all that black culture went.
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