The longest lasting middle eastern and African dynasties.

MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
2,889
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
#1
What were the longest lasting dynasties in the Middle East and Africa?

If part of a dynasty's length was legendary, when was the division between the legendary and the historical periods of the dynasty?

If answering, be sure to distinguish between the length of time a dynasty lasted as a ruling or reigning dynasty and the length of time it lasted as a family from earliest known ancestor to latest known descendant.
 
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Tulun

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
3,851
Western Eurasia
#2
I'm not sure about dynasties of the antiquity.

for the islamic period some candidates i can propose:

the Abbasids, if we also include their Egyptian phase when they were used as a makeup, then a total of 767 years (from 750-1517) .

The current Jordanian ruling dynasty, if we include their periods of sharifs of Makkah, though they were not sovereign rulers there but vassal governors. Descendants of Muhammad (s.a.w.) were sharifs/amirs in Makkah since the 10th century, but they were initially from different subclans than the current Jordanian Hashemite dynasty. But the Jordanian royal dynasty's ancestor became amir of Makkah in 1201, and then as far as i know all later sharifs were his descendants and then they moved to the Jordanian and Iraqi throne, so that would make them ruling in one way (and place) or another for 817 years as of now?

My knowledge of the political history of Morocco and Yemen is too patchy, but in both places different branches of the descendants of Muhammad (s.a.w.) established polities, (Idris in the 8th century Morocco, and Zaydi imams in the 10th century century in Yemen), again even if they were not always sovereign and only controlling smaller parts of it, but i wonder if for example the Yemeni Zaydi imams would qualify as one dynasty until 1962?

And of course all of these, the different sharif/sayyid dynasties and the Abbasids were from the same clan of the Quraish.

if for some reason we want to disqualify all of these, then Ottomans too with their 620+ years reign can play.
 
May 2015
1,301
Germany
#3
The longest one in Africa was probably the Sefuwa dynasty of Kanem-Bornu, lasting from 1068 to 1848. A close contender would have been the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia, lasting from 1270 to 1974 (however with several usurpers).
 

MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
2,889
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
#4
The longest one in Africa was probably the Sefuwa dynasty of Kanem-Bornu, lasting from 1068 to 1848. A close contender would have been the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia, lasting from 1270 to 1974 (however with several usurpers).
According to Wikipedia, the Sayfawa or Sefuwa dynasty of Kanen-Bornu reigned from about 1086-1846, or about 760 years.

The reign dates for Hume, the 12th mai and the first of the Sefuwa Dynasty, are given as 1085 or 1086 to 1097.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayfawa_dynasty

But the article on Hume, or Hummay, says he reigned form 1068 to 1080, thus ending his reign before it began according to the other article. That gives 778 years for the length of the dynasty.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hummay

...A close contender would have been the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia, lasting from 1270 to 1974 (however with several usurpers).
I do not think that the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia lasted exactly from 1270 to 1974, or exactly 704 years.

As near as I can tell:

Persons belonging to the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 547 years, persons possibly members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 84 years, thus giving the Solomonic Dynasty 547 to 631 years of rule, persons descended through female lines from the Solmonic Dynasty ruled for 23 years, persons descended from the House of Shewa (and so possibly from the Solomonic dynasty) in female lines ruled for 42 years, and persons not members of the Solomonic Dynasty ruled for 8 years.

A long discussion follows below.

In a monarchy where the usual and normal and desired succession is from father to son - and there were and are monarchies where that is not the usual, normal, or desired succession - a dynasty is the group of people descending from the dynasty founded in agnatic lines of descent.

A definition of agnatic is:

a relative whose connection is traceable exclusively through males.
any male relation on the father's side.
adjective
related or akin through males or on the father's side.
Thus agnatic descendants and members of the dynasty are descended from father to son to grandson to great grandson to great great grandson and so on and so on.

If the succession law is agnatic primogeniture only men descended in the male line from the dynasty founder can inherit, until such men are all extinct and then the eldest daughter of the last surviving male member can inherit.

If the succession law is male preference primogeniture, probably the most common rule in European history, a ruler's male line descendants are the preferred heirs, but if he has daughters or female line descendants they inherit instead of the ruler's brothers, nephews, uncles, 1st cousin, 2nd cousins, or more distant agnatic relations.

But in both cases the preferred inheritance is by the son of the ruler, and so membership in the dynasty is in the male line of descent. If a member of some other family usurps the throne or marries the heiress of the dynasty he starts a new dynasty.

The Solomonic Dynasty (or S.D. for short) ruled Ethiopia for 441 years from 1270-1711.

Then Yostos reigned from 1711-1716 who was descended from the S.D. in a female line.

Then the Solomonic Dynasty ruled or reigned again for 54 years until 1770 when Susenyos II had a brief reign, claiming to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 27 years, 1770-1797.

Yonas reigned 1797-98, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for one year, 1798-99, the fifth reign of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Demetros reigned 1799-1800, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for a time in 1800, the sixth reign of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Demetros reigned again from 1800-1801, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 20 years, 1801-1821.

Giger reigned 1821-1826, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then Baeda Maryam III reigned for a time in 1826. His ancestry is unknown.

Giger reigned again 1826-1830, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 2 years, 1830-1832.

Then Gebre Krestos and later Sahle Dengel reigned from 1832-1840, who claimed to be members of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 1 year, 1840-41, the first reign of Yohannes III, son of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Then Sahle Dengel reigned a second time from 1841-1845, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for a time in 1845, the second reign of Yohannes III, son of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Then Sahle Dengel reigned a third time from 1845-1850, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for a year in 1850-51, the third reign of Yohannes III (died c. 1873?), son of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Then Sahle Dengel reigned a fourth time from 1851-1855, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then Teowdros II ruled from 1855-1868. He eventually claimed to be a member of the S.D., but his claim is considered to be the weakest of all the rulers who claimed that descent.

Then Tekle Giyorgis II reigned from 1868-1871. He claimed descent from the rulers of Lasta and from the Zagwe Dynasty which had been overthrown in 1270. He also claimed female line descent from the S.D.

Then Yohannes IV ruled from 1871 to 1889. He had female descents from the S.D.

Then Menelik II, the King of Shewa, became ruler from 1889 to 1913. He claimed male line descent from and membership in the Solomonic Dynasty, and his claim is the most widely accepted one.

Iyasu V reigned from 1913-1916, being the son of a daughter of Menelik II, and thus not a member of the S.D.

Zewditu I reigned from 1916-1930. A daughter of Menelik II, she was the last monarch who was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty, and then only if Menelik II was.

Haile Selassie I ruled from 1930-1936. He was not a member of the S.D., but his grandmother was a member of the Shewan dynasty and so was a member of the S.D. if the Shewan Dynasty was part of the S.D.

King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy reigned from 1936 to 1941/43, who was not a member of the S.D., and Haile Selassie I returned in 1941 and ruled until 1974.

So during the 704 years from of 1270 to 1974 members of the Solomonic Dynasty certainly ruled and/or reigned for 441 years from 1270 to 1711, plus 54 years from 1716-1770, plus 27 years from 1770-1797, plus 1 year in 1797-98, plus 20 years from 1801-1821, plus 2 years in 1830-32, plus 1 year from 1840-41, plus 1 year in 1850-51. That is a total of 547 years of reign by persons certainly belonging to the Solomonic Dynasty.

There were also reigns of person claiming to be members of the Solomonic Dynasty, whose claims range from the most doubted (Tewodros II) to the most believed (Menelik II).

Those possible members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 1 year, 1797-98, plus 1 year 1799-1800, plus 1 year 1800-01, plus 5 years, 1821-26, plus 4 years 1823-1830, plus 8 years, 1832-40, plus 4 years 1841-45, plus 5 years, 1845-50, plus 4 years, 1851-55, plus 13 years, 1855-1868, plus 24 years, 1889-1913, plus 14 years, 1916-1930. These total 84 years.

So members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for about 547 to 631 years depending on how many claims of membership in the Solomonic Dynasty are correct.

Rulers descended from the Solomonic Dynasty in female lines ruled for 5 years, 1711-16, and 18 years, 1871-1889, a total of 23 years.

Rulers descended from the House of Shewa in female lines, who would be descended from the Solomonic Dynasty if the House of Shewa is a branch of the Solomonic Dynasty, ruled for 3 years, 1913-16, 6 years, 1930-36, and 33 years, 1941-1974, a total of 42 years.

Rulers who were not members of the Solomonic dynasty ruled for 3 years, 1868-71, and 5 years, 1936-41, a total of 8 years.

And Baeda Maryam III, whose ancestry was unknown, reigned for a few days in 1826 and that doesn't affect the totals.

To sum up:

Persons belonging to the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 547 years, persons possibly members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 84 years, thus giving the Solominic Dynasty 547 to 631 years of rule, persons descended through female lines from the Solmonic Dynasty ruled for 23 years, persons descended from the House of Shewa and so possibly from the Solomonic dynasty in female lines ruled for 42 years, and persons not members of the Solomonic Dynasty ruled for 8 years.

So that makes a total of 704 years.
 
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MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
2,889
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
#5
Ethiopia has had some long lasting dynasties.

1) The Solomonic Dynasty 547 to 631 years, though some people loosely count 704 years.

It is sometimes said that the Solomonic Dynasty ruled Ethiopia for 704 years from 1270 to 1974.

I do not think that the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia lasted exactly from 1270 to 1974, or exactly 704 years.

As near as I can tell:

Persons belonging to the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 547 years, persons possibly members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 84 years, thus giving the Solomonic Dynasty 547 to 631 years of reign, persons descended through female lines from the Solmonic Dynasty ruled for 23 years, persons descended from the House of Shewa (and so possibly from the Solomonic dynasty) in female lines ruled for 42 years, and persons not members of the Solomonic Dynasty ruled for 8 years.

There is a long discussion at the bottom of this post.

2) The Zagwe Dynasty 136 to 971 years, depending on the actual date they started to reign and on interpretation of the facts.

Queen Gudit overthrew the old Aksum Dynasty about 960 and ruled for about 40 years, dying in about 1000, according to legend. Her dynasty was overthrown by the Zagwe dynasty in 1137 according to one legend. Mara Takla Haymonot, the first Zagwe king of kings, married a daughter of Dil Na'od, the last Aksum King of Kings, according to one story, even though that daughter should have been very old 177 years after her father was overthrown!

Some sources list 11 Zagwe rulers over 354 years, or from 916 to 1270, an average of 32.18 years per reign, while other sources list 5 who ruled for 143 years (possibly from 1127 to 1270), an average of 28.6 years. If 6 Zagwe rulers reigned from 916 to 1127 or 211 years there would be an average of 35.166 years in those 6 reigns.

And there is supposedly a list of 16 Zagwe monarchs, giving an average reign of 7.5 to 23.125 years if the Zagwe dynasty began in 900 to 1150.

Yekuno Amlak, who over threw the last Zagwe ruler in 1270 and founded the Solomonic Dynasty, claimed to be descended from Dil Na'od, the last Aksum ruler, in ten generation gaps. If an average generation is 20 to 40 years, 1270 should have been about 200 to 400 years after the reign of Dil Na'od, which would then be sometime about 870 to 1070. Assuming that the average generation in that lineage was about 25 to 30 years, the reign of Dil Na'od would have been 250 to 300 years before 1270, or about 970 to 1020.

So the Zagwe Dynasty ruled Ethiopia for 133 to 370 years before 1270, then continued as vassal rulers of Lasta for some time, and then the governors of Lasta were appointed from the Zagwe Dynasty for centuries. Then a Zagwe Dynasty member became King of Kings from 1868 to 1871, restoring his dynasty to power after 598 years. So some people might claim that the rule of the Zaqwe Dynasty lasted for 136 to 373 years spread out over a span of 734 to 971 years. And other people might claim that status as vassel rulers and governors meant that the Zagwe dynasty counted as rulers for all 734 to 971 years.

3) The Aksumite Kingdom. Up to 800 years?

The Aksumite Kingdom is believed to have existed for about 800 years from about 100 AD to about 900 AD.

So if there were ten Aksunite dynasties they might have lasted for an average of about 80 years.

Nine Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 88.88 years.

Eight Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 100.00 years.

Seven Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 114.28 years.

Six Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 133.33 years.

Five Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 160.00 years.

Four Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 200 years.

Three Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 266.66 years.

Two Aksumite dynasties would have an average length of about 400 years.

One Aksumite dynasty would have a length of about 800 years.

So it is certainly possible that the Aksumite kingdom had a single dynasty that lasted for about 800 years.

4) The legendary Super Solomonic Dynasty. Between 547 years and about 2,531 years.

Yekuno Amlak who founded the Solomonic Dynasty in 1270 claimed to be a descendant of Dil Na'od, the last King of Kings of the Aksumite realm, and thus to be restoring the Solomonic Dynasty to its rightful place instead of founding it for the first time.

If that is correct, then the Solomonic Dynasty ruled for all the 547 to 631 years that it ruled after 1270, plus all the years that Dil Na'od's dynasty ruled.

So if Dil Na'od's dynasty ruled for 35 years before being overthrown, the Solomonic Dynasty would have ruled for a total of 582 to 666 years, spread out over an even longer span of time.

So if Dil Na'od's dynasty ruled for 152 years before being overthrown, the Solomonic Dynasty would have ruled for a total of 699 to 783 years, spread out over an even longer span of time.

So if Dil Na'od's dynasty ruled for 457 years before being overthrown, the Solomonic Dynasty would have ruled for a total of 1,004 to 1,088 years, spread out over an even longer span of time.

So if Dil Na'od's dynasty ruled for about 800 years before being overthrown, the Solomonic Dynasty would have ruled for a total of 1,347 to 1,431 years, spread out over about 1,751 to 1,830 years from about 100 to 1851 to 1930.

According to one list of Axumite rulers, the Axumite realm lasted from the reign of Menelik I (240-179 BC) to the reign of Dil Na'od, about 915 AD, or for about 1,119 years, thus making the Solomonic Dynasty rule for about 1,666 to 1,750 years, spread over a period of 2,055 to 2,134 years from 204 BC to 1851 to 1930.

East Africa

Of course King Menelik I was supposed to be the son of King Solomon of Israel, who supposedly reigned from 961 to 922 BC, the son of King David who supposedly reigned from about 1010 to 961 BC.

Thus the Auxumite realm might have been founded by King of Kings Menelik I sometime about 950 to 900 BC, and the Solomonic Dynasty might have ruled it for about 1,800 to 1,900 years from about 900 BC to 900 AD or from about 950 BC to about 950 AD. So the Solomonic Dynasty might have ruled Ethiopia for a total of 2,347 to 2,531 years, spread out over 2,751 to 2,880 years from 950 to 900 BC to 1851 to 1930 AD.

In short, the Solomonic Dynasty ruled Ethiopia for 547 to 2,531 years and has a history going back to sometime between about 1010 BC and 1270 AD.

5) Discussion of how long the Solomonic Dynasty ruled during the period of 1270-1974.

In a monarchy where the usual and normal and desired succession is from father to son - and there were and are monarchies where that is not the usual, normal, or desired succession - a dynasty is the group of people descending from the dynasty founded in agnatic lines of descent.

A definition of agnatic is:

a relative whose connection is traceable exclusively through males.
any male relation on the father's side.
adjective
related or akin through males or on the father's side.
Thus agnatic descendants and members of the dynasty are descended from father to son to grandson to great grandson to great great grandson and so on and so on.

If the succession law is agnatic primogeniture only men descended in the male line from the dynasty founder can inherit, until such men are all extinct and then the eldest daughter of the last surviving male member can inherit.

If the succession law is male preference primogeniture, probably the most common rule in European history, a ruler's male line descendants are the preferred heirs, but if he has daughters or female line descendants they inherit instead of the ruler's brothers, nephews, uncles, 1st cousin, 2nd cousins, or more distant agnatic relations.

But in both cases the preferred inheritance is by the son of the ruler, and so membership in the dynasty is in the male line of descent. If a member of some other family usurps the throne or marries the heiress of the dynasty he starts a new dynasty.

The Solomonic Dynasty (or S.D. for short) ruled Ethiopia for 441 years from 1270-1711.

Then Yostos reigned from 1711-1716 who was descended from the S.D. in a female line.

Then the Solomonic Dynasty ruled or reigned again for 54 years until 1770 when Susenyos II had a brief reign, claiming to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 27 years, 1770-1797.

Yonas reigned 1797-98, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for one year, 1798-99, the fifth reign of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Demetros reigned 1799-1800, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for a time in 1800, the sixth reign of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Demetros reigned again from 1800-1801, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 20 years, 1801-1821.

Giger reigned 1821-1826, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then Baeda Maryam III reigned for a time in 1826. His ancestry is unknown.

Giger reigned again 1826-1830, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 2 years, 1830-1832.

Then Gebre Krestos and later Sahle Dengel reigned from 1832-1840, who claimed to be members of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for 1 year, 1840-41, the first reign of Yohannes III, son of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Then Sahle Dengel reigned a second time from 1841-1845, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for a time in 1845, the second reign of Yohannes III, son of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Then Sahle Dengel reigned a third time from 1845-1850, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then the S.D. reigned again for a year in 1850-51, the third reign of Yohannes III (died c. 1873?), son of Tekle Giyorgis I.

Then Sahle Dengel reigned a fourth time from 1851-1855, who claimed to be a member of the S.D.

Then Teowdros II ruled from 1855-1868. He eventually claimed to be a member of the S.D., but his claim is considered to be the weakest of all the rulers who claimed that descent.

Then Tekle Giyorgis I reigned from 1868-1871. He claimed descent from the rulers of Lasta and from the Zagwe Dynasty which had been overthrown in 1270. He also claimed female line descent from the S.D.

Then Yohannes IV ruled from 1871 to 1889. He had female descents from the S.D.

Then Menelik II, the King of Shewa, became ruler from 1889 to 1913. He claimed male line descent from and membership in the Solomonic Dynasty, and his claim is the most widely accepted one.

Iyasu V reigned from 1913-1916, being the son of a daughter of Menelik II, and thus not a member of the S.D.

Zewditu I reigned from 1916-1930. A daughter of Menelik II, she was the last monarch who was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty, and then only if Menelik II was.

Haile Selassie I ruled from 1930-1936. He was not a member of the S.D., but his grandmother was a member of the Shewan dynasty and so was a member of the S.D. if the Shewan Dynasty was part of the S.D.

King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy reigned from 1936 to 1941/43, who was not a member of the S.D., and Haile Selassie I returned in 1941 and ruled until 1974.

So during the 704 years from of 1270 to 1974 members of the Solomonic Dynasty certainly ruled and/or reigned for 441 years from 1270 to 1711, plus 54 years from 1716-1770, plus 27 years from 1770-1797, plus 1 year in 1797-98, plus 20 years from 1801-1821, plus 2 years in 1830-32, plus 1 year from 1840-41, plus 1 year in 1850-51. That is a total of 547 years of reign by persons certainly belonging to the Solomonic Dynasty.

There were also reigns of person claiming to be members of the Solomonic Dynasty, whose claims range from the most doubted (Tewodros II) to the most believed (Menelik II).

Those possible members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 1 year, 1797-98, plus 1 year 1799-1800, plus 1 year 1800-01, plus 5 years, 1821-26, plus 4 years 1823-1830, plus 8 years, 1832-40, plus 4 years 1841-45, plus 5 years, 1845-50, plus 4 years, 1851-55, plus 13 years, 1855-1868, plus 24 years, 1889-1913, plus 14 years, 1916-1930. These total 84 years.

So members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for about 547 to 631 years depending on how many claims of membership in the Solomonic Dynasty are correct.

Rulers descended from the Solomonic Dynasty in female lines ruled for 5 years, 1711-16, and 18 years, 1871-1889, a total of 23 years.

Rulers descended from the House of Shewa in female lines, who would be descended from the Solomonic Dynasty if the House of Shewa is a branch of the Solomonic Dynasty, ruled for 3 years, 1913-16, 6 years, 1930-36, and 33 years, 1941-1974, a total of 42 years.

Rulers who were not members of the Solomonic dynasty ruled for 3 years, 1868-71, and 5 years, 1936-41, a total of 8 years.

And Baeda Maryam III, whose ancestry was unknown, reigned for a few days in 1826 and that doesn't affect the totals.

To sum up:

Persons belonging to the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 547 years, persons possibly members of the Solomonic Dynasty reigned for 84 years, thus giving the Solominic Dynasty 547 to 631 years of rule, persons descended through female lines from the Solmonic Dynasty ruled for 23 years, persons descended from the House of Shewa and so possibly from the Solomonic dynasty in female lines ruled for 42 years, and persons not members of the Solomonic Dynasty ruled for 8 years.

So that makes a total of 704 years.
 
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Jul 2017
100
Czech Republic
#7
Tekle Giyorgis claimed Zagwe's ancestry, however veracity of this claim could be disputed. Probably he just adapted local myths to boost his authority, by association himself with famous ancient kings.


Concerning Shewa house - all the oldest sources are unanimous, that this family is related to salomonic dynasty, but only through female link. Genealogy, that trace black origin of Shewa dynasty to David, son of emperor Lebne Dengel is probably quite late invention (not attested until reign of Menelik II), made up to associate new line with medieval salomonic rulers.
 
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Tulun

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
3,851
Western Eurasia
#8
Another long (Arab origin) African dynasty that i haven't heard about before (also with one female ruler as i see: that Mwana Khadija bt. Bwana Mkuu b. Abi Bakr Bwana Gogo) from C.E. Bosworth's
The new Islamic dynasties
A chronological and genealogical manual


"63.
THE NABHĀNĪ RULERS OF PATE

600–1312/1203–1894
The island of Pate, off the modern Kenyan coastland

600/1203 Sulayman b. Muẓaffar
628/1227 Muḥammad b. Sulaymān
650/1252 Aḥmad b. Sulaymān
670/1272 Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān
705/1305 Muḥammad b. Aḥmad
732/1332 Umar b. Muḥammad
749/1348 Muḥammad b. ‘Umar
797/1395 Aḥmad b. ‘Umar
840/1436 Abū Bakr b. Muḥammad
875/1470 Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr
900/1495 Abū Bakr b. Muḥammad
945/1538 Bwana Mkuu I b. Muḥammad
973/1565 Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr
1002/1594 Bwana Bakari I b. Bwana Mkuu I
1011/1602 Abū Bakr Bwana Gogo b. Muḥammad
1061/1651 Bwana Mkuu II b. Bwana Bakari I
1100/1689 Bwana Bakari II b. Bwana Mkuu II
1103/1692 Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr
1111/1699 Bwana Tamu Mkuu, Abū Bakr b. Muḥammad Bwana Mtiti
1152/1739 Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr b. Muḥammad
1160/1747 Bwana Tamu Mtoto, Abū Bakr
1177/1763 Mwana Khadīja bt. Bwana Mkuu b. Abī Bakr Bwana Gogo
1187/1773 Bwana Mkuu b. Shehe b. Abī Bakr Bwana Tamu Mkuu
1191/1777 Bwana Fumo Madi, Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr Bwana Tamu Mtoto
1224/1809 Aḥmad b. Shehe b. Fumo Luti
1230/1815 Fumo Luti Kipanga b. Bwana Fumo Madi
1236/1821 Fumo Luti b. Shehe b. Fumo Luti
1236/1821 Bwana Shehe b. Muḥammad Bwana Fumo Madi, first reign
1239/1824 Aḥmad, Bwana Waziri b. Bwana Tamu b. Shehe, first reign
1241/1826 Bwana Shehe, second reign
1247/1831 Aḥmad, Bwana Waziri, second reign
1250/1835 Fumo Bakari b. Bwana Shehe
1262/1846 Aḥmad b. Shehe b. Fumo Luti
1273/1857 Aḥmad Simba b. Fumo Luti b. Shehe
1306/1889 Fumo Bakari b. Aḥmad, d. 1308/1891, ruler in Witu
1308/1890 Bwana Shehe b. Aḥmad b. Shehe
1308–12/1890–4 Fumo Omari b. Aḥmad b. Shehe, last ruler in Pate
1312/1894 British rule
1312-after 1326/
1894-after 1908 Omar Madi, under British suzerainty

This line of rulers apparently stemmed from the same tribal group as the
Nabhānīs ruling in Oman before the Ya’rubids (see above, no. 53), though
probably not from the Nabhānī ruling family. They ruled the island of Pate in
the Lamu archipelago off the Kenyan coast from the thirteenth century
onwards under Omani suzerainty, after 1109/1698 (the date when the Omanis
took Mombasa from the Portuguese) paying customs dues to Zanzibar. The
rulers of Pate also controlled Witu on the mainland, but came under British
control at the end of the nineteenth century. A remarkably full list of the
rulers of Pate is to be found in the Swahili oral traditional history of the
family, only written down at the end of the nineteenth century (see the
bibliography below); the dates in it, followed faute de mieux in the above
table, should obviously be regarded as very approximate.

EI 2 ‘Lamu’, ‘Pate’ (G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville).
G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville (tr. and introd.), Habari za Pate: the History of Pate…,
unpublished paper.
J. S. Kirkman, ‘The early history of Oman in East Africa’, Journal of Oman Studies VI
(1980), 41–58, with lists of the rulers of Pate and the Nabhānīs at pp. 56–7."
 

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