"The Moors civilized Europe" theory

Aug 2018
697
london
Various texts from Constantinople were brought to western Europe as a result of the 1204 'crusade', obviously they weren't burnt.
 
Sep 2019
486
Slovenia
It was written by a monk as summary of knowledge about physics.

Also it is worth to say here that Greece which is mentioned by Nikephoros Blemmydes as being so rich with the books remained partly under Latin rule even after Byzantine empire was re-established. This is called 'Frankokratia'. Indeed the re-established Byzantine empire was weak and Ottomans conquered it in 1453. But parts of Greece remained under Italian, Venetian or Genoese rule for a long time and Greek scholars emigrated at that time in the west in great numbers.


 
Jan 2020
130
cumberstone
Various texts from Constantinople were brought to western Europe as a result of the 1204 'crusade', obviously they weren't burnt.
Okay, but concentrate on the sciences and technology. I don't care about the books about Byzantine Emperors or religious books.
 
Sep 2019
486
Slovenia
Here is one example how this was done:

John Argyropoulos was born in c. 1415, in Constantinople. He was Greek.

Argyropoulos studied theology and philosophy in Constantinople.

When Constantinople fell in 1453, he left and in 1456, took refuge in Italy, where he worked as a teacher in the revival of Greek philosophy as head of the Greek department in Florence.

He made efforts to transport Greek philosophy to Western Europe. He left a number of Latin translations, including many of Aristotel's works. His principal works were translations of the following portions of Aristotle, Categoriae, De Interpretatione, Analytica Posteriora, Physica, De Caelo, De Anima, Metaphysica, Ethica Nicomachea, Politica; and an Expositio Ethicorum Aristotelis. Several of his writings exist still in manuscript.


 
Sep 2019
486
Slovenia
@Ario imperial library in Constantinople was burned however Venetians took a lot of books and Byzantine emperors made later great efforts to rebuild the imperial library. It was captured at the end by Ottomans with all its books.

We know with certitude that the library functioned until the FourthCrusade (1204 A.D.), when it was vandalized and burned by the crusaders. In 1204, the crusaders have deviated from their original route, the liberation of Jerusalem, and they turned to conquering the city of Constantinople and establish the Latin Empire, which will last between 1204-1261. This course of events determined the historian Steven Runciman to remark that because "none of the French could read in Greek and very fewknew how to read at all ... they kept only the books that had expensive metalsor precious stones, and burned the rest, along with their buildings, while the Venetians, who were widely read, chose to save them".


In the year 1261, the Constantinople is retaken from the Latins by the Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus (1259-1282). The following Byzantine emperors tried to rebuild and recompose the imperial library, to the extent that"the Byzantine scribes in the XIV century were busier than ever copying rare manuscripts"


 
Aug 2018
634
Southern Indiana
Just read about Zaryab, very interesting guy who has been largely forgotten by history. He revolutionized music and made many other contributions to civilization that are still in use today.

Ziryab - Wikipedia
 
Aug 2018
697
london
Okay, but concentrate on the sciences and technology. I don't care about the books about Byzantine Emperors or religious books.
"William of Moerbeke, French Guillaume de Moerbeke, (born c. 1215, Moerbeke, Brabant—died c. 1286, Orvieto?), Flemish cleric, archbishop, and classical scholar whose Latin translations of the works of Aristotle and other early Greek philosophers and commentators were important in the transmission of Greek thought to the medieval Latin West.

William entered the Dominican priory at Ghent and later studied in Paris and Cologne, where he presumably worked with Albertus Magnus. After an assignment c. 1260 to the priory in Thebes, and in Nicaea, near Constantinople, he was appointed chaplain and confessor to Pope Clement IV (1265–68) and to five succeeding popes. A proponent of reunion between the Eastern and Western churches, William took part in the Council of Lyon (1274) as an adviser to Pope Gregory X. On April 9, 1278, Pope Nicholas III named him archbishop of Corinth, a position he held until his death. The neighbouring Greek village of Merbakas is thought to be named for him. The place of William’s death is uncertain; he is known to have traveled to the Italian states in the mid-1280s at the behest of the pope.

At the urging of Thomas Aquinas, whom he knew at the Italian Dominican houses at Viterbo and Orvieto, William in 1260 made a literal Latin translation of Aristotle’s On the Heavens and Meteorology. During the next two decades he translated parts of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Politics, Rhetoric, and History of Animals, together with cognate treatises on animal psychology and physiology, concluding in 1278 with Poetics. He revised existing Latin versions of other Aristotelian writings, including On Memory and Recall, Physics, Posterior Analytics, and possibly the Nichomachean Ethics.

The more important early commentaries on Aristotle’s works that William also translated include those by Alexander of Aphrodisia (2nd century) on Metaphysica and De sensu (On Sensation), Ammonius Hermiae (5th century) on Peri hermeneias (“On Interpretation”), and those by Themistius (4th century) and John Philoponus (6th century) on De anima (On the Soul). Most of these translations were done in 1268.

William’s translations of such leading early Neoplatonist writers as the 5th-century philosopher Proclus’s Elementatio theologica (Elements of Theology), as well as his commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, revealed to 13th-century Scholastic philosophers and theologians the Platonic basis of treatises formerly and incorrectly attributed to Aristotle. The discovery of this literature by Western philosophers also gave great impetus to Neoplatonism in the Middle Ages. Using a rigidly literal style, William rendered the Greek texts into Latin with a fidelity that not only helped his contemporaries grasp Aristotle’s exact meaning but also established his translations as the standard for the medieval Latin world.

Other classical Greek texts that William translated include works of Ptolemy and Hippocrates’ De prognosticationibus aegritudinum secundum motum lunae (On Predicting Illnesses According to the Phases of the Moon)."



"William of Moerbeke, O.P. (Dutch: Willem van Moerbeke; Latin: Gulielmus de Moerbecum; 1215-35 – c. 1286), was a prolific medieval translator of philosophical, medical, and scientific texts from Greek language into Latin, enabled by the period of Latin rule of the Byzantine Empire. His translations were influential in his day, when few competing translations were available, and are still respected by modern scholars. Moerbeke was Flemish by origin, and a Dominican by vocation. Little is known of his life. In the spring of 1260, he was at either Nicea, or Nicles, in the Peloponnese; in the autumn of the same year, he was at Thebes, where the Dominicans had been since 1253 and where he dated his translation of Aristotle's De partibus animalium.

In turn he resided at the pontifical court of Viterbo (with evidence for his residence here in 22 November 1267, May 1268, and 15 June 1271), was in Orvieto in 1272, and appeared at the Council of Lyons(1274). Then, from 1277 until his death in 1286 (which probably occurred several months before the nomination of his successor as bishop in October 1286) occupied the Latin Archbishopric of Corinth, a Catholic see established in the northeastern Peloponnese (Greece) after the Fourth Crusade. It is not clear how much time he actually spent in his see: documents show him on mission in Perugia for the Pope in 1283 and dictating his will there.

He was associated with the philosopher Thomas Aquinas, the mathematician John Campanus, the Silesian naturalist and physician Witelo, and the astronomer Henri Bate of Mechlin, who dedicated to William his treatise on the astrolabe. At the request of Aquinas, so it is assumed—the source document is not clear—he undertook a complete translation of the works of Aristotle directly from the Greek or, for some portions, a revision of existing translations. The reason for the request was that many of the copies of Aristotle in Latin then in circulation had originated in Spain (see Gerard of Cremona), from Arabic whose texts in turn had often passed through Syriac versions rather than being translated from the originals.

Aquinas wrote his commentary on Aristotle's De anima, the translation of which from the Greek was completed by Moerbeke in 1267 while Aquinas was regent at the studium provinciale at the convent of Santa Sabina in Rome, the forerunner of the 16th century College of Saint Thomas at Santa Maria sopra Minerva and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.[1]

William of Moerbeke was the first translator of the Politics (c. 1260) into Latin, as the Politics, unlike other parts of the Aristotelian corpus, had not been translated into Arabic.[2][3] He was also responsible for one of only three medieval Latin translations of Aristotle's Rhetoric.[4] William's translations were already standard classics by the 14th century, when Henricus Hervodius put his finger on their enduring value: they were literal (de verbo in verbo), faithful to the spirit of Aristotle and without elegance. For several of William's translations, the Byzantine Greek manuscripts have since disappeared: without him the works would be lost.

William also translated mathematical treatises by Hero of Alexandria and Archimedes. Especially important was his translation of the Elements of Theology of Proclus (made in 1268), because the Elements of Theology is one of the fundamental sources of the revived Neo-Platonic philosophical currents of the 13th century. His translation of Proclus' commentary on Plato's Parmenides which included Plato's dialogue up to 142b in Stephanus pagination made this text available in Latin for the first time.[5] Some important shorter texts of Proclus, such as "On Providence," "On providence and Fate," and "On the Existence of Evil," are preserved only in William of Moerbeke's translation. [6]

The Vatican collection holds William's own copy of the translation he made of the greatest Hellenistic mathematician, Archimedes, with commentaries of Eutocius, which was made in 1269 at the papal court in Viterbo. William consulted two of the best Byzantine Greek manuscripts of Archimedes, both of which have since disappeared. The manuscript, in his own hand, was in the exhibition Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library & Renaissance Culture at the Library of Congress in 1993."

 
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