The mystery of the fertility of the Mesolithic

Nov 2019
10
Perm
Translated with Yandex-translator

The purpose of this work is to show the primary, basic importance of agriculture, primarily grain farming, on the formation of culture. And also in the answer to the children's question - how did bread appear? Its novelty is not in new discoveries, but in a new look at the well-known facts of anthropology, Ethnography, mythology, folklore. We can say in the new interdisciplinary structuring of their data on agriculture. This new view clearly shows how people in General took up such labor-intensive activities as cultivation of land; and I must stop the scientific and semi-scientific disputes about the fundamental origin of agriculture. As stages of development of agriculture corresponded to stages of cultural development of mankind. In this article, I was not interested in the countless variations of human social evolution, branches and dead ends. I was only interested in the main road. Although, the main way of man from savagery to civilization was a bypass, we can say, a virtual path-the magical mysteries of Mesolithic fertility. Since agriculture originated and initially developed exclusively as a magical institution.

"Studies in the oldest history of mankind have found that, with many superficial differences, the first crude philosophical systems developed by the human mind are similar in their essential features."
The Golden Bough : a study of magic and religion
Entry.
Until now, it has not been fully understood how agriculture arose. Since the advent of the Sciences of Ethnography and anthropology, it has been constantly noted that agricultural societies have been so extremely reluctant to join agriculture in the natural conditions of their existence that the theory of alien importation of agricultural technologies has spread. In my opinion, the main problem is that the questions of the historical evolution of mankind were approached from the point of view of a rational person. And before that, from the Neolithic revolution, man was religious. Pre-Neolithic generally mystical. The religious man lived by the salvation of the soul, the mystic among the spirits. And they acted according to their mentality. To determine their motives from the point of view of rationalism is to initially take a wrong position. So let's look at the problem of the emergence of agriculture on the basis of well-known data from anthropology, Ethnography, mythology, folklore in a new way.

I. Struggle for food.

Wild animals, from which the hominids have evolved, expel strangers of their kind from the territory on which they feed. There is no reason to believe that the first people had it any other way. Studies of backward tribes in the Paleolithic and Mesolithic stages clearly record their presence of a taboo on the land of the genus for outsiders. The nomadism (unsaddling) of primitive people is still misunderstood by many as free movement over vast areas of land. In fact, they roamed a fairly large, but also quite strictly limited territory of their kind. I use here the term "kind" as more usual, although I consider the use of the term "pride"to be correct.
Traces of this taboo persisted in Europe. The cult of Diana Taurica demanded that every foreigner who set foot on the shore should be put to death. This bloodthirstiness of hers cannot be rationally explained without taking into account, once existing in Europe, the taboo on land for foreigners. At the same time, this goddess is not unique; she was identified with Artemis, with Selene, with Hecate-goddesses of the same level. She is compared to Cybele, to Ishtar. And goddesses of a lower level, for example, Egeria with Ilaria. Artemis was still called Agrotera, Alphaea, Alankara, Arista, Astraea, Brauronia, Brome, Hegemon, of George, Heatinterior, Daphnia, Delia, Euclea, Eurynome, Iphigenia, Kallista, Caryatid, Kinfiya, Cordata, Latria, Leucovorin, Legadema, Lochia, Melissa, Munichia, Orfe, Orthosia, Pagurova, Gout, Salesfore, Taurine, Stavropol, Uliya, Phoebe, Perea, Heaton, eleftheria, Ethopia. Another was Artemis Artista, Kolinska, Jesisca. And she had companions more like her twins: Hyala, Nephele, opis, Ortigia, Pseca, Ranida, phiala, Anticlea, Britomartis, Daphne, Eurybia, Crocala, Polyphonta, Procris, Syringa, Taigeta, Phoebe, Philonia.
J. J. Fraser in the Golden bough explicitly points out that Phaedra is the double of Artemis, although Phaedra is the stepmother of Hippolytus of Artemis's lover Diana. Fraser explained this paradox by analyzing the myth of Demeter and Persephone (mother and daughter) as the personification of the Harvest, the Old Harvest and The new Harvest. It is well known that many of the above names were originally analogous to the fertility goddesses of different lands; and when some families or tribes rose, their gods rose, the gods of other families and tribes became deities of a lower rank. As we noted at the beginning, the taboo on earth came before man, and has been sanctified by the tradition of many years. As for strangers to their own land, so for their own to a foreign land. Crossing the border was perceived as a journey to the limits of other people's spirits, to the limit of death. A person who has been in other people's borders and returned alive among the peoples who are in the stages of the Paleolithic and Mesolithic is considered unclean, and his status is equated with the status of a murderer, until he passes the cleansing (very heavy) rites. And this taboo on earth was reinforced by more than one tradition. Just as the tradition has rizdales on an economic basis. After all, the first people did not produce anything, and lived only by the gifts of their land, they were collectors on their land. And they fiercely defended what gave them life.

And all that was required of the earth was to be fertile, to give abundance of fruit. The goddess Diana was the goddess of fertility; and all her innumerable counterparts were either goddesses of fertility, or, in the status of goddesses of a lower rank, assistants in this matter. It was the female part of the genus that "demanded" the sacrifice of foreigners in order to protect the forage base of the genus. But the stranger, for whatever purpose or for whatever reason, who had come to the land of the race, certainly did not wish to be sacrificed. And he had only two alternatives: either to flee, or to join the fight (for what reason men often found themselves in foreign lands, I covered in more detail in the work "Genesis of the character Baba YAG, and some other characters of the Russian folk fairy tale"). In short-the leaders of the human prides expelled all the boys (their sons) who reached puberty, and the latter were forced to either look for free territory, or, having matured, to capture someone else's pride. From the cult of Diana of Nemia it is known that the battle took place one-on-one with the king of a foreigner; and if the newcomer won, he took the place of the King. A strong Tsar (the head of the the pride lands) was guarantee of, that territory kind of not will morph in pass yard for outsiders. But that was not enough. I wanted the area to be abundant, and did not have to starve. And women "figured out" how to achieve this.
 
Nov 2019
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II. The birth of a model. (The appearance of the model.)​

Before the upper paleotic revolution, there was no question of any mysteries, everything was primitive and utilitarian. People are just learning to see cause and effect in the world and in their lives. One of the first practically-important conclusions made by primitive man, was the conclusion about the presence of analogy; and the most striking material manifestation of them-the products of symbolism (cave painting, Paleolithic Venus (forerunners of art)). Understanding the existence of analogy in life allows wild animals to extend (generalize) the principles of practice (methods) to the adjacent sides of life, without repeating the mistakes made in the initial development of the method. But in the upper Paleolithic a higher understanding of analogy allowed not only the individual to use it, but also to transmit experience, to teach, not directly in the process of practice, but remotely from the event, both in time and in space; to tell. To create a model of a phenomenon, event, process both figurative (pantomime, drawing, figurine) and verbal. How to search, how to get, how to catch, and other "how".
However, primitive people made one mistake, and this, perhaps, was even more important for social progress. For a long time people did not distinguish between deed and word, process and its imitation, between reality and the model of this reality. They believed that the same actions should produce the same result. For example, that the imitation of the birth of a child will lead to a real birth. Moreover, even verbal imitation (imitation of cries during childbirth, a story about childbirth, a wish) could bring to childbirth. This was, of course, not a justifiably broad generalization of analogy; and this phenomenon can be called a childhood disease of hypertrophied awareness of the power of reason. After all, correctly (appropriately) applied analogy really gives amazing results. Primitive same, "unarmed" scientific knowledge, man could not enough critically build noticed them cause-and-effect relations. Along with true analogies, he relied in his practice on false ones, which formed the tools of primitive magic; and echoes of which have come down to us in the form of superstitions: many of us at the beginning of the third Millennium in their practice still rely on them. From these repeated stories and displays (imitations) about luck, about "how it is necessary" in the lower Mesolithic there were at first magic rituals with spells and plots which in the upper Mesolithic developed into national festivals with the corresponding fairy tales and myths - verbal models of fertility mysteries. And later into a religious cult.
Before the Neolithic, that is, among the gatherers, all productive activity was taboo, since it did not give an obvious immediate result (additional food), and all labor was considered vain, if not harmful. The only" productive " activity recognized imitative magic. The same analogy was used logically-the effect is similar to its cause or similar causes similar. By this logic, the result can be achieved by simply simulating the expected result. People were misled by the unjustifiably broad generalization of analogy - the same actions produce the same result. So in different places of the planet there were magic "tools". For example, panicles for spraying water when simulating rain in order to call this very rain. It is believed that they were used for a long time, but in the end, realizing the mistake, abandoned this empty case. Another magical "tool" is still popular, and has had a literally revolutionary impact on people's lives; you could say, made a man a man. We are talking about pots of flowers, which today are almost on every windowsill. This" tool "is known to historians under the term" gardens of Adonis " - pots or baskets with the earth in which planted fast-growing annual plants-for example, onions, dill, legumes, flowers, cereals. Caring for them was not difficult, and brought their mistresses probably more pleasure, being more like a game. It is the care and manipulation of these" gardens of Adonis " that I call the fertility mysteries. That is, in the minds of women of the lower Mesolithic care of the "garden of Adonis" generalized to the entire flora. For the middle Mesolithic planters, the spirit of nature began to incarnate in these microfields, the plants in them became the personification of all nature. And because of their ability, as it seemed to the sowers of the upper Mesolithic, to "influence" the fertility of nature, they eventually began to be perceived as a material embodiment of the deity of nature (for example, Adonis, whose name they are named). In the" theory of magical agronomy " appeared mythical notes. The seed that was sown gave fresh growth for the next year, some called the daughter (son) of the mother (father), others compared with death (sometimes with sleep), with a journey underground or imprisonment of this deity in the dungeon and liberation, others – with the burial and resurrection of the deity of vegetation. Initially, they were not created for beauty or fruit, in these "gardens of Adonis" could be planted and simple weeds. The main thing is that they grow quickly. To the primitive women these baskets and mere leaves of earth were the analogy of the whole vegetable world; and they believed that by tending these microfields, they homeopathically stimulate the entire plant world; the better the "harvest" on these microfields, the more abundant nature will bestow its fruits on people.
 
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Nov 2019
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III. Metamorphosis of the model.​


At first, each woman cultivated her "garden of Adonis" in her own way. However, gradually among them stood out more "lucky", whose baskets bloomed and sprouted better, thicker than the others. Less "lucky", sought from those same magical considerations (already contagious magic) keep its basket alongside its basket, "infect" its basket fertility. At the same time, of course, exchanged experience of successful care of plants. Gradually, a number of individual baskets became a collective front garden (middle Mesolithic), and even later-in public fields, cultivated together (upper Mesolithic). If in the lower Mesolithic "gardens of Adonis" could be any plant, in the upper Mesolithic already used certain cultures that give the greatest effect. But they were still cultivated not for the sake of full bins of grain, but exclusively for the same purpose - by the method of imitative magic to stimulate the fertility of the wild nature. It was the plants grown in these baskets that began to be considered the body of the deity, and stand out from the rest of the flora. And in order to plant his seed, it was necessary to collect and store this seed. By analogy, the idea was born that you can collect for future use and other fruits, already wild (for example, mushrooms, berries). Communities that have moved to this practice, anthropologists have been called "harvest collectors"; it is from this time the Russian fairy tale "as The king of Peas with mushrooms fought."
Imperceptibly commanded selection, grew crops "magic" cultures, people get used to their the use of under imitation food. The mystery of fertility necessarily had to contain such an element as an imitation of food, a feast. After all, for the sake of all the action and committed. It has since survived the tradition of sculpting dough of various gingerbread animals and people as a substitute for the sacrifice of animals and people. Throughout the Mesolithic, the fruits of the "gardens of Adonis" were used exclusively in the mysteries of fertility; first as an imitation of food, then as communion with the body of the deity. But not like the food. The "harvest gatherers" have dramatically changed their psychology, only the places of gathering the most important products and cultivated fields have become important for them. The rest of the territory ceased to be principled. The erosion of the institution of taboo on earth began. Went exchange, and began to emerge alliances human collectives. Precisely in the process unification owing to erosion institution taboo on earth have become rise alone goddess and their gods (Adonis, Zeus, Osiris and etc.), other same have been shifting in the discharge of deities more low rank, or satellites and satellites gods. By the Neolithic, women were already jointly sowing one common, but still magical, arable land, and together they collected a common, just as magical, harvest.
 
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IV. Model (staging) model.

Gradually, from an easy individual occupation comparable to a hobby, the mysteries of fertility as socialization began to turn into a heavy social duty. This was compensated, first, by the development of the verbal part of the magical ritual, which developed into the myth of the birth, life and exploits, death and resurrection of the hero — Harvest. If at the very beginning the verbal part consisted in the spell of the sprout, expressed in the simple name of the plant, then by the Neolithic it represented in many peoples already a real epic work, a developed myth, which was sung during joint work. Secondly, the fact that the means (cultivation of the "gardens of Adonis" (already in the form of public fields)) imperceptibly turned into a goal, demanded and allowed him to apply a magical imitative means. Myth and was this imitative means. But having received the public form, "gardens of Adonis" demanded the public form for imitation of the ceremonial cycle. This was expressed in the staging of the myth. They are known to us on the holidays of Maypole, Maslenitsa, Sabantuy, New Year, Christmas, Easter and many other regional and little-known, such as the Belarusian "Marriage of Tsaryashka". At the same time, these social mysteries affected the consciousness of their participants and spectators. It was thanks to them that people "realized" the need for annual field work, even if the main product still continued to be extracted in the forest.
If in the lower Mesolithic every woman who tended her "garden of Adonis" was herself a magician and a sorceress, then with the advent of collective, and even more so public fields, public sorcerers appeared. They in a long drought caused rain, organized the above public mysteries-dramatizations. This public a sorcerer became the only adult a man-the head of the the pride lands, after all he was natural guarantor of prosperity the pride lands. In particular, its properties are believed as the women of the pride, so did he. In the middle Mesolithic women raised him to the rank of man-God (on whose actions and deeds depended, first of all, the fertility of the surrounding nature, and the General welfare of the community) - Christ. A mortal God, like the ever-dying and resurrecting nature. He died in single combat with a foreigner, and "resurrected" in the form of this very foreigner, strong, strong and healthy. If in the middle Mesolithic each village had its own man-God (Christ), in the upper Mesolithic some rose, others lost their sacredness. And the latter had to become assistants of the exalted man-God (Christ), to become the first priesthood. They remained exempt from all economic work and concerns for the extraction of food. They became Ministers of worship. There was, however, insomnia from idleness, but at the same time the opportunity to watch the stars. And the more observant of them noticed that the seasonality coincided with the arrangement of the stars in the sky, identified the constellations; and began to give predictions and agronomic orders on them. Built the first mon-asterions with towers to observe the starry sky, later turned into monasteries. Convinced that the stars very accurately predict the change of seasons, astrologers monks seriously delved into the celestial mechanics. And they invented the calendar, the first clock, and the phonetic alphabet. About the latter I have told in the work "How and when there was writing" ("the Alphabet is given to us from heaven?"). Sons who reached puberty were still expelled.
And man-God (Christ) continued to sacrifice. First, according to the old scheme-in a duel with a wandering stranger. And the priests strictly observed the observance of the ritual. With the beginning of the Neolithic, when loners stopped wandering, invented the astrological method - for one or another celestial signs. This severed the link between the health of man-God (Christ) and the fertility of nature, between worship and agriculture. Cult became to live their lives, agriculture its. The man-God (Christ) ceased to personify the spirit of nature, he ceased to be sacrificed, he became the bearer of the moral values of society, the Holy father; the plants of the" gardens of Adonis " lost their magical significance; and their fruits began to be used utilitarily as food. The Neolithic revolution took place. By the Neolithic the main source of food continued to be forest and rivers with lakes and seas. The size of grain fields grew only exclusively due to the Association of individual microfields, but the yield in the best years did not exceed "Sam-tert". That is, one seed sown, the grain was collected not more than three. Although the very accumulation of the harvest has already made it possible to allocate labor not related to the extraction of food (Ministers of worship). No new arable land appeared. By the Neolithic, it was believed that there was enough for a magical effect on the fertility of nature.
Preserving traces of sacredness in modern times, Christians around the world partake of bread, perceiving it as the body of God. After the Neolithic revolution, the public fields around the mon asterions ceased to have magical significance, but their increase was limited to available labor. The fields were cultivated and cleared only by women with digging sticks and stone sickles. At the same time, the women's community was organized "horizontally" in it there was no hierarchy. Men were either expelled when they reached puberty, or they became Ministers of worship.
 
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The PERIODS (relative and approximate).

1. Lower Paleolithic — pridava organization of human communities, the taboo on the land of pride to outsiders. The leader was the strongest male, who took and defended leadership in personal combat; and expelled all his male children who reached puberty. Cannibalism. Occupations-gathering and hunting without any processing and without stocks for the future. Active use of stones and sticks-diggers.

2. The middle Paleolithic — the first rudiments of magic-a strong stone becomes an attribute of the leader, a strong and tall tree began to symbolize the genus.

3. Upper Paleolithic — the beginning of symbolism (cave drawings, figures of bone and stone). The emergence of magic, and the spread of its principles on all sides life. The emergence of "gardens of Adonis" for imitative-magical effects on nature. Any plants, first of all, annual, could act as them. Spells.

4. Lower Mesolithic-further development of private "gardens of Adonis". Chaotic selection and selection of plants in these " gardens of Adonis. Conspiracies.

5. Middle Mesolithic-emergence of joint (collective) "gardens of Adonis". The emergence of social magic. Hostess the most productive "gardens Adonis" acquire sacral status, the head of the the pride lands – status personifier spirit vegetation, (on moonlighting public a sorcerer, evoker rain), in the ensuing man-God (Christ). Boys in puberty are still expelled from the territory of the pride. Joint (collective) carrying out of magic rituals of a ritual cycle-future public mysteries of fertility in which the harvest of gifts of the nature was personified by a harvest of "gardens of Adonis". People become "harvesters", that is, begin to make preparations for the future, there are products of processing (flour) and methods of preservation (for example, drying). Erosion of the institution of taboo on earth. The first temples-premises for processing and storage of crops "gardens of Adonis" (house of Bread). The earth bow (with the touch of the hand of the earth) as an imitation of the harvest in front of the "house of Bread". The emergence of astrology, and the construction of the first mon-asterions (places to observe the stars, future monasteries). Tales.

6. Upper Mesolithic-the emergence of public fields from the Association of the former joint "gardens of Adonis". The most "lucky" personification of the spirit of vegetation turns into a man-God (Christ). Less fortunate go to the status of priests responsible for conducting the mysteries of fertility and the maintenance of churches; almost agronomists. The invention of the priests-astrologers of writing. Formation of cults. Man-God (Christ) is still sacrificed. Earth bow before man-God (Christ) personified the Harvest. Limitation of the term of the reign of man-God, including in the form of a ban on natural death, on old age. Myths. The first books containing a description of the fertility mysteries with the sacrifice of man-God-gospel. Astrological descriptions in allegorical form of celestial phenomena, subsequently included in the old Testament and as prophecies, and as myths.

7. Neolithic-rites of fertility mysteries become at the level of folk festivals, are formalized, religious (Catholicism, Catharism, Mithraism, Calvinism, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, etc.). Cultivated plants lose their sanctity, they are replaced by the person of man-God (Christ), previously symbolizing a particular sacred plant. Themselves cultivated plants moving into the category of utilitarian products, and get massive everyday use. Wheat crop in a good year "he-t". Temples cease to be considered "houses of bread", become the centers of the formed abstract cults of the deity, acquire monumental forms. Just part of the priesthood, previously organized and conducted sacrifices of man-God (Christ) on the mysteries of fertility, accused of killing man-God (Christ). The emergence of theocracies. Man-God becomes a Theocrat-the representative of God on earth. Religion.
In the second part "After the Mesolithic or male unions" on the consequences of the emergence of agriculture.
 
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Post the English translation of "II. The birth of a model". You can still edit it.
Maybe English just doesn't say "birth of a model." Perhaps the "emergence of the model"will be clearer. Thanks for the comment.
 
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AlpinLuke

Forum Staff
Oct 2011
27,365
Italy, Lago Maggiore
Maybe English just doesn't say "birth of a model." Perhaps the "emergence of the model"will be clearer.
I was not making reference to the title, but to the text in the post: it's in Russian ...