The Navies of the Napoleonic Wars

Sep 2011
5,387
#11
Right, for Sweden – and this took some sleuthing to come up with so far:

The beginning of the period asked for, the Rev and Nap wars, coincides with Swedish king Gustav III's "Russian war" 1788-90, which largely became a naval confrontation between Sweden and Russia.

Having perused navy ship lists, and so far only had time to look through the ships-of-the-line, I would have to say that going into that war:

Swedish navy ships-of-the-line
1788: 31 – according to the navy's classification (though four elderly ships were below 60-guns and could be taken out of the list for comparability)
1789: 28, i.e. three lost in action and to accidents in the first year of conflict
1790: 22, another 7 lost to Russian action in the engagement known as the "Viborg Gauntlet", one new ship entering service.

Sweden then for the duration of the Napoleonic wars built only a single replacement, a 74 (1799), bringing the Swedish navy ships-of-the-line total up to 23 for most of the period in question.

There is however an aspect of naval warfare in the Baltic at the time that sort of throws off strength calculation a bit, of over-focusing on the big ships-of-the-line.
That's the presence and massive both Russian and Swedish investment in their "Galley Fleets", i.e. galleys, sloops, "littoral frigates" and all manner of vessels specifically designed for fighting in the littoral waters along the Swedish-Finnish and Russian coastlines. (Anyone sailing their big ships into the waters of either could be in for a nasty shock.)

Numerically the Galley Fleets were huge. Total numbers are difficult to find, but looking at the two major naval engagements in 1790 gives a decent idea.

At the "Vyborg Gauntlet" Russian navy got the drop on the Swedish both Galley Fleet and Baltic Squadron riding at anchor, bottling them up at the end of a bay from which they had to break out to save themselves, while being subject to the fire of the Russian Baltic Squadron. Present for Sweden was 20 ships-of-the-line, 12 frigates and no less than 242 vessels of the Galley Fleet. The losses from the successful break-out ran to 7 ships-of-the-line, 3 frigates and approx. 10 smaller vessels of the Galley Fleet, for no Russian losses. The action occurred on 3 July 1790.
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Six days later, the navies clashed again, at the "Second Battle of Svensksund", 9-10 July 1790. The Swedish navy had completed with the arrival of Admiral Cronstedts Pommeranian Squadron, so present was 20 ships-of-the-line and 14 frigates plus the 242 units of the Galley Fleet. Russian numbers were similar, best info found gives a tally of 274 vessels. The end result was a Swedish victory at the cost of six vessels of the Galley Fleet, the greatest one of the important "littoral frigates", while bout a third of the Russian Galley Fleet was sunk or captured.
1562929698214.png
 
Oct 2015
803
Virginia
#12
I think I've identified the names of these 5/6 first rates.

HMS Britannia 1762
HMS Victory 1765
HMS Royal Sovereign
1786
HMS Royal George 1788
HMS Queen Charlotte 1790 (destroyed by accidental fire 1800)
+
HMS Ville de Paris 1795


Royal George in the Medway 1790. Her sister ship, Queen Charlotte, under construction in the background dockyard

You are right. Later there were the Hibernia (110) ordered in 1790 completed in 1804, and Caledonia (120) ordered in 1796 launched in 1808.
 
Jun 2012
2,970
Brazil
#13
For José Rodrigues Pereira, in his book Campanhas Navais 1793-1807 (Portugual Naval campaigns 1793-1807), he put the Portuguese Atlantic fleet in 1800 with 65 big to medium sail vessel, divided in
14 Ships of line, 23 frigates, 3 corvette, 17 brigs, 8 charruas (I dont know the english equivalent for this ship), making 560 officers and 12.000 sailors.
It was a shadow of his former self but for a country with 3 million habitants it was a pretty good fleet.
 
Sep 2011
5,387
#14
For José Rodrigues Pereira, in his book Campanhas Navais 1793-1807 (Portugual Naval campaigns 1793-1807), he put the Portuguese Atlantic fleet in 1800 with 65 big to medium sail vessel, divided in
14 Ships of line, 23 frigates, 3 corvette, 17 brigs, 8 charruas (I dont know the english equivalent for this ship), making 560 officers and 12.000 sailors.
It was a shadow of his former self but for a country with 3 million habitants it was a pretty good fleet.
3 million put Portugal on pretty much the exact same footing as Sweden-Finland at the time then.

But I can assume you are not counting the 3+ million population of Brazil in that figure for Portugal?
 
May 2016
5,451
Portugal
#15
For José Rodrigues Pereira, in his book Campanhas Navais 1793-1807 (Portugual Naval campaigns 1793-1807), he put the Portuguese Atlantic fleet in 1800 with 65 big to medium sail vessel, divided in

14 Ships of line, 23 frigates, 3 corvette, 17 brigs, 8 charruas (I dont know the english equivalent for this ship), making 560 officers and 12.000 sailors.
It was a shadow of his former self but for a country with 3 million habitants it was a pretty good fleet.
In the “Nova História Militar de Portugal” it is stated by António José Telo that Portugal had in 1791 12 Naus (ships of the line) 15 Frigates, 3 Corvettes and 9 Brigs and 6 Charruas and similar ships.

In 1807 the court moves to Brazil in 40 merchant ships escorted by 8 naus, 5 frigates, 7 brigs, 1 charrua and 1 escuna, plus 3 British ships. Meaning that in 1807 the Portuguese had 12 naus (and one more in the Indies), and 11 Frigates. The author also states that in 1791 Portugal had a third of the Spanish navy and half of the Dutch. So, looking for the numbers provided here for the Spanish and Dutch seems that some numbers are wrong.
 
Jun 2012
2,970
Brazil
#16
3 million put Portugal on pretty much the exact same footing as Sweden-Finland at the time then.

But I can assume you are not counting the 3+ million population of Brazil in that figure for Portugal?
Hello Larrey in the book this fleet was Portuguese "home fleet", it was paid and made to protect Portugual, the fleets that operated in Brazil were most of the time, paid with money from the colony, separated from the metropolis, so he probably not counting the colonies.
 
Dec 2014
6,342
Spain
#17
In the “Nova História Militar de Portugal” it is stated by António José Telo that Portugal had in 1791 12 Naus (ships of the line) 15 Frigates, 3 Corvettes and 9 Brigs and 6 Charruas and similar ships.

In 1807 the court moves to Brazil in 40 merchant ships escorted by 8 naus, 5 frigates, 7 brigs, 1 charrua and 1 escuna, plus 3 British ships. Meaning that in 1807 the Portuguese had 12 naus (and one more in the Indies), and 11 Frigates. The author also states that in 1791 Portugal had a third of the Spanish navy and half of the Dutch. So, looking for the numbers provided here for the Spanish and Dutch seems that some numbers are wrong.
Dear Tulius,

My figures about Spanish Navys are exact.. not what a History man say (you know my natural aversion to historians ... they have the same scientific knowledge as astrologers ... but that is another story )... my sources, as you well know, are official reports of the Real Armada of the year 1805, as they are in the archives.

The Spanish Armada in 1805 have 54 ships in line, 283 ships and 96.000 men.. (not including Ships not ready for Sea operations).

Source: Archivo General de la Marina "Álvaro de Bazán" (Viso del Marqués, Ciudad Real, La Mancha); Section: Real Armada ships.
Archivo del Museo Naval de Madrid: Section: Manuscripts
Biblioteca del Museo Naval de Madrid.

Also you can find in the book: March y Labores J. Historia de la Marina Real Española, desde el descubrimiento de las Américas hasta el combate de Trafalgar. Madrid. 1859. Volumen II. Pages 788 - 797. (Each ship name by name, type, number of guns and base).

So my numbers are exact about Spanish Navy in January 1805:

54 ships of line
283 ships
96.100 men.
 
Jun 2012
2,970
Brazil
#18
In the “Nova História Militar de Portugal” it is stated by António José Telo that Portugal had in 1791 12 Naus (ships of the line) 15 Frigates, 3 Corvettes and 9 Brigs and 6 Charruas and similar ships.

In 1807 the court moves to Brazil in 40 merchant ships escorted by 8 naus, 5 frigates, 7 brigs, 1 charrua and 1 escuna, plus 3 British ships. Meaning that in 1807 the Portuguese had 12 naus (and one more in the Indies), and 11 Frigates. The author also states that in 1791 Portugal had a third of the Spanish navy and half of the Dutch. So, looking for the numbers provided here for the Spanish and Dutch seems that some numbers are wrong.
Hi Tulius, your jedi power in this theme looks bigger than my, do you have the numbers for the fleets in Brasil.
 
Sep 2011
5,387
#19
Hello Larrey in the book this fleet was Portuguese "home fleet", it was paid and made to protect Portugual, the fleets that operated in Brazil were most of the time, paid with money from the colony, separated from the metropolis, so he probably not counting the colonies.
Interesting, meaning the actual Portugese numbers could be assumed to be higher.
 
May 2016
5,451
Portugal
#20
Dear Tulius,

My figures about Spanish Navys are exact.. not what a History man say (you know my natural aversion to historians ... they have the same scientific knowledge as astrologers ... but that is another story )... my sources, as you well know, are official reports of the Real Armada of the year 1805, as they are in the archives.

The Spanish Armada in 1805 have 54 ships in line, 283 ships and 96.000 men.. (not including Ships not ready for Sea operations).

Source: Archivo General de la Marina "Álvaro de Bazán" (Viso del Marqués, Ciudad Real, La Mancha); Section: Real Armada ships.

Archivo del Museo Naval de Madrid: Section: Manuscripts

Biblioteca del Museo Naval de Madrid.

Also you can find in the book: March y Labores J. Historia de la Marina Real Española, desde el descubrimiento de las Américas hasta el combate de Trafalgar. Madrid. 1859. Volumen II. Pages 788 - 797. (Each ship name by name, type, number of guns and base).

So my numbers are exact about Spanish Navy in January 1805:

54 ships of line

283 ships

96.100 men.
To be fair I was doubting more about Telo’s relation of forces than about the numbers you provided.

Hi Tulius, your jedi power in this theme looks bigger than my, do you have the numbers for the fleets in Brasil.
Hi Taurosiano,

My Jedi powers are more in the dark side, since they are all in a chaos! :D

In general they seem similar to yours (there is some disparity in the Frigates), but the different nomenclature can eventually justify that partially.

I thought that I had them all, but when I went for it I didn’t found exactly what I was looking for.

Anyway, the Portuguese Armada, November 1807, according to Cristovão Aires in “Historia Organica e Política do Exército Portuguez”:

War ships:

Ships of the Line – Naus:

Rainha de Portugal — D. João de Castro — Condo D. Henrique — Vasco da Gama — Principe Real — Príncipe do Brasil — Princesa da Beira — Martim do Freitas — S. Sebastião — M." 1.® — Meduza — Affonso d'Albuquerque.

Frigates:

Carlota — Princeza do Brasil — Minerva — Golfinho — Pérola — Urania — Real Voador — Venus — Benjamim — Amazona — Graça Fénix — Andorinha.

Brigs:

Lebre — Voador — Vingança — S. Boaventura — Condoça de Rezende — Gaivota — Balão — Serpente.

Escunas Ferrão — Curiosa.

Transport ships:

Brigs:

Gaviao.

Charruas:

S. João Magnânimo — S. Carlos Augusto — Princeza Real — Princeza da Beira — Thetis — Activa — Principe da Beira

Source: http://purl.pt/24869/4/sc-139546-v/...50/sc-139546-v_0000_capa-capa_t24-C-R0150.pdf, p. 129
 

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