The Nuragic civilization of Sardinia, was it Tarshish?

May 2017
219
Italy
First of, among all the lands west of Greece during the Late Bronze age, Sardinia seems to be the most advanced in many aspects.
For starters, architecture wise the Sardinian people were the most proficient if we direct our attention towards west of Greece:
The Nuraghi temselves are proof of that, building 7000 or more stone towers and palaces in the spawn of a few centuries (1600-1100 bc) isn't an easy task, some Nuraghi, such as Nuraghe Arrubiu, reached a height of 30 meters and their structure was resembling of Medieval castles, with dozens of towers and multiple layers of walls.
The main towers could display up to three tholoi on top of each others, such as in Nuraghe Arrubiu, Santu Antine, and Nuraghe Barumini, to name a few of the most notable examples. The tholos of Nuraghe is Paras was the tallest aereal tholos at the time, with a height of almost 12 meters (Mycenean tholoi being non-aereal tholoi, so of a different type).


But the "Nuragic" (Bronze age Sardinian) people's archtiectural prowess doesn't end with the Nuraghi, they have left behind over a hundred of the so called "well temples", a type of religious structure unique to Sardinia (there is one similar structure in Bulgaria built in the late Bronze age, but I won't go into details, of course connecting the presence of such a Nuragic like structure so far away with the sea peoples seems tempting).
The well temples display in some cases superb works of masonry, such as the Paulilatino temple of Santa Cristina, the one in Santa Vittoria of Serri, that of Perfugas, that of Tempiesu and that of Nulvi, to name a few.
Regarding the one in Santa Cristina, it has to be noted that not only it is proof of the Nuragic peoples' prowess in architecture, but it is also a testament to their superb knowledge of astronomy.

These "well temples" were often situated in monumental sanctuary complexes, where Nuragic chiefdoms met, these sanctuaries were thus most likely places of pilgrimage according to archaeologists, structures with pillars most likely meant to house pilmgrins were in found in these sanctuaries, these sanctuary complexes are an evidence of Nuragic civilization progressing towards urbanized society, both because of their huge sizes and because they prove a high level of cohesion between Nuragic chiefdoms.


The local Sardinians also built hundreds of monumental tombs and rectangular temples, and even an aqueduct and other hydraulic implants, such as fountains and pools, a testimony to the architectural prowess of the Nuragic Sardinians.
Another evidence of Sardinian development and receptiveness towards new technologies is that Sardinian smiths seem to have mastered the art of making iron objects and tools as early as in the initial phases of the Final Bronze age, this technique was most likely the result of their interaction with Cypriots, it is also likely that mainland Italics and Villanovians (proto Etruscans) received their iron working knowledge from Sardinian migrants during the final bronze age and early iron age, in fact, during these phases we see a huge quantity of Sardinian objects and pottery in Etruria, and metallurgic activity seems to have begun in those regions during the same period.


But the priviliged relationship Sardinia had with the Eastern Med isn't only made evident by the acquisition of new technologies, Sardinians also made huge progresses in the field of agriculture compared to other Western and Central mediterranean regions.

Recent discoveries have proved that the Nuragic people already cultivated melons during the recent Bronze age (1350-1150 bc), the introduction of melon in Sardinia seems to be contemporary of even earlier than in Mycenean Greece:

Melon cultivation wasn't introduced in the rest of the Western Med until the Roman Age, but Nuragic peoples had already got around to it, maybe directly from Egypt or from other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean.

There is also evidence of grape cultivation, fiques, mulberries, olives and many other types of fruits and berries, all of this reveals a very diverse and quite developed agricultural system.



The locals were also very proficient in the artistic department, today archaeologists have counted more than 700 Nuragic bronze statuettes depicting warriors, chiefs, priests, animals and objects such as chariots, ships and the famous Nuraghi themselves, the category which counts the most objects is the ship models, with around 157 of them having been found, some of them even in Peninsular Italy, where they were buried with the Aristocracy or situated in sanctuaries.

Finally, the discovery of over 40 antropomorphic colossal statues, at least two centuries older than the Greek kuroi, and possibly the oldest in all of Europe, confirms that Sardinia had an important role during the late bronze age and early iron age.










My question is, how could such a developed culture go unnoticed by contemporary civilizations?

My answer is that it didn't, during the early iron age we see Assyrian sources naming a distant land rich of silver located on an island named Tarshish. Biblical texts referring to the same period of time (1000-600 bc) also mention Tarshish, a distant land full of riches with a powerful fleet located in the far west.

In Biblical Texts Tarshish is often mentioned in relation to Phoenicians.

So, which land better than Sardinia could be a candidate for this ancient civilization?

First of, the only mention of Tarshish west of the Levant is found in Nora, an ancient city in Sardinia, where the name Tarshish or TRSS is written in ancient Phoenician stelae dating to the 9th century bc.

Second of all, Nuragic Sardinia seems to have been the only highly developed culture in the Western Med which possessed an active fleet, which was the main feature of ancient Tarshish.

There is evidence of Nuragic communities both in Central Italian sites belonging the to the Villanovian culture, and in Iberian both in Pre-Phoenician and Phoenician sites.

Sardinians took a primary role in trade during the early phases of the iron age, Sardinian pottery was uncovered in large quantities in Iberia, Etruria and North Africa, the Nuragic "askoi pitchers", which carried alcoholic substances and other liquids, became very popular and were imitated locally, slightly later, the "Sant'Imbenia" type amphorae, named after a Nuragic settlement in the Northwest Coast of Sardinia, became widespread and were uncovered in large quantities all over the West Mediterranean basin, these amphorae were used to carry Sardinian wine, which seems to have been really popular and much sought after by the coastal peoples of the EIA Mediterranean, in the foundation layer of Carthage, over 66% of the pottery was imported from Sardinia.

But Sardinans were probably already actively trading with the Central and Eastern Med during the recent and late bronze age, as substantiated by the discovery of Nuragic pottery, both locally manufactured and imported found in Sicily, Lipri, Crete and Cyprus.

Sardinia seems to have been especially involved in trade with bronze age Cypriots, that is also underlined by the vast quantity of oxhide ingots found in the island, Sardinia is the place where the biggest quantity of said ingots has been found, including Crete and Cyprus itself, while in Italy and Sicily only a trifling number of them has been discovered.


Here's a Nuragic ship model found in Southern Italy dating to the EIA:




Sardinian pottery in the recent and late bronze age (1350-1050 bc):





Main sites where Nuragic pottery and materials were uncovered in LBA/EIA Italy:





And in Iberia:






Finally, Tarshish was often mentioned in relation to its huge deposits of silver, and Sardinia is the richest region in silver together with Iberia in all of Europe, so much that the Greeks called it the "silver island", the name Tarshish itself seems to originate from a Semitic term meaning silver/area rich in silver.


Interestingly enough, ancient Sardinians employed Near Eastern armors, this is noticeable in some bronze statuettes which depict Sardinian warriors equipped with what looks like heavy Assyrian armor, these statuettes date back to 1000-750 bc and so are contemporary to these types of Assyrian armors, this has led archaeologists to believe Sardinian mercenaries were involved in the Near East, the identification of Sardinians with the Sherden mercenaries and pirates mentioned in N.E sources is still debated.

Here's a few of said statuettes:







 
Last edited:
Aug 2013
956
Italy
First of, between all the lands west of Greece during the late bronze age, Sardinia seems to be the most advanced in many aspects
For starters, architecture wise the Sardinian people were the most proficient if we direct our attention towards west of Greece:
The Nuraghi temselves are proof of that, building 7000 or more stone towers and palaces in the spawn of a few centuries (1600-1100 bc) isn't an easy task, some Nuraghi, such as Nuraghe Arrubiu, reached a height of 30 meters and their structure was resembling of Medieval castles, with dozens of towers and multiple layers of walls.
The main towers could display up to three tholoi on top of each others, such as in Nuraghe Arrubiu, Santu Antine, and Nuraghe Barumini, to name a few of the most notable examples. The tholos of Nuraghe is Paras was the tallest aereal tholos at the time, with a height of almost 12 meters (Mycenean tholoi being non-aereal tholoi, so of a different type).


But the "Nuragic" (Bronze age Sardinian) people's archtiectural prowess doesn't end with the Nuraghi, they have left behind over a hundred of the so called "well temples", a type of religious structure unique to Sardinia (there is one similar structure in Bulgaria built in the late Bronze age, but I won't go into details, of course connecting the presence of such a Nuragic like structure so far away with the sea peoples seems tempting).
The well temples display in some cases superb works of masonry, such as the Paulilatino temple of Santa Cristina, the one in Santa Vittoria of Serri, that of Perfugas, that of Tempiesu and that of Nulvi, to name a few.
Regarding the one in Santa Cristina, it has to be noted that not only it is proof of the Nuragic peoples' prowess in architecture, but it is also a testament to their superb knowledge of astronomy.

These "well temples" were often situated in monumental sanctuary complexes, where Nuragic chiefdoms met, these sanctuaries were thus most likely places of pilgrimage according to archaeologists, structures with pillars most likely meant to house pilmgrins were in found in these sanctuaries, these sanctuary complexes are an evidence of Nuragic civilization progressing towards urbanized society, both because of their huge sizes and because they prove a high level of cohesion between Nuragic chiefdoms.


The local Sardinians also built hundreds of monumental tombs and rectangular temples, and even an aqueduct and other hydraulic implants, such as fountains and pools, a testimony to the architectural prowess of the Nuragic Sardinians.
Another evidence of Sardinian development and receptiveness towards new technologies is that Sardinian smiths seem to have mastered the art of making iron objects and tools as early as in the initial phases of the Final Bronze age, this technique was most likely the result of their interaction with Cypriots, it is also likely that mainland Italics and Villanovians (proto Etruscans) received their iron working knowledge from Sardinian migrants during the final bronze age and early iron age, in fact, during these phases we see a huge quantity of Sardinian objects and pottery in Etruria, and metallurgic activity seems to have begun in those regions during the same period.


But the priviliged relationship Sardinia had with the Eastern Med isn't only made evident by the acquisition of new technologies, Sardinians also made huge progresses in the field of agriculture compared to other Western and Central mediterranean regions.

Recent discoveries have proved that the Nuragic people already cultivated melons during the recent Bronze age (1350-1150 bc), the introduction of melon in Sardinia seems to be contemporary of even earlier than in Mycenean Greece:

Melon cultivation wasn't introduced in the rest of the Western Med until the Roman Age, but Nuragic peoples had already got around to it, maybe directly from Egypt or from other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean.

There is also evidence of grape cultivation, fiques, mulberries, olives and many other types of fruits and berries, all of this reveals a very diverse and quite developed agricultural system.



The locals were also very proficient in the artistic department, today archaeologists have counted more than 700 Nuragic bronze statuettes depicting warriors, chiefs, priests, animals and objects such as chariots, ships and the famous Nuraghi themselves, the category which counts the most objects is the ship models, with around 157 of them having been found, some of them even in Peninsular Italy, where they were buried with the Aristocracy or situated in sanctuaries.

Finally, the discovery of over 40 antropomorphic colossal statues, at least two centuries older than the Greek kuroi, and possibly the oldest in all of Europe, confirms that Sardinia had an important role during the late bronze age and early iron age.










My question is, how could such a developed culture go unnoticed by contemporary civilizations?

My answer is that it didn't, during the early iron age we see Assyrian sources naming a distant land rich of silver located on an island named Tarshish. Biblical texts referring to the same period of time (1000-600 bc) also mention Tarshish, a distant land full of riches with a powerful fleet located in the far west.

In Biblical Texts Tarshish is often mentioned in relation to Phoenicians.

So, which land better than Sardinia could be a candidate for this ancient civilization?

First of, the only mention of Tarshish west of the Levant is found in Nora, an ancient city in Sardinia, where the name Tarshish or TRSS is written in ancient Phoenician stelae dating to the 9th century bc.

Second of all, Nuragic Sardinia seems to have been the only highly developed culture in the Western Med which possessed an active fleet, which was the main feature of ancient Tarshish.

There is evidence of Nuragic communities both in Central Italian sites belonging the to the Villanovian culture, and in Iberian both in Pre-Phoenician and Phoenician sites.

Sardinians took a primary role in trade during the early phases of the iron age, Sardinian pottery was uncovered in large quantities in Iberia, Etruria and North Africa, the Nuragic "askoi pitchers", which carried alcoholic substances and other liquids, became very popular and were imitated locally, slightly later, the "Sant'Imbenia" type amphorae, named after a Nuragic settlement in the Northwest Coast of Sardinia, became widespread and were uncovered in large quantities all over the West Mediterranean basin, these amphorae were used to carry Sardinian wine, which seems to have been really popular and much sought after by the coastal peoples of the EIA Mediterranean, in the foundation layer of Carthage, over 66% of the pottery was imported from Sardinia.

But Sardinans were probably already actively trading with the Central and Eastern Med during the recent and late bronze age, as substantiated by the discovery of Nuragic pottery, both locally manufactured and imported found in Sicily, Lipri, Crete and Cyprus.

Pic related is a Nuragic ship model found in Southern Italy dating to the EIA.




Finally, Tarshish was often mentioned in relation to its huge deposits of silver, and Sardinia is the richest region in silver together with Iberia in all of Europe, so much that the Greeks called it the "silver island", the name Tarshish itself seems to originate from a Semitic term meaning silver/area rich in silver.


Interestingly enough, ancient Sardinians employed Near Eastern armors, this is noticeable in some bronze statuettes which depict Sardinian warriors equipped with what looks like heavy Assyrian armor, these statuettes date back to 1000-750 bc and so are contemporary to these types of Assyrian armors, this has led archaeologists to believe Sardinian mercenaries were involved in the Near East, the identification of Sardinians with the Sherden mercenaries and pirates mentioned in N.E sources is still debated.

Here's a few of said statuettes:







:rolleyes:Hello Albert, I'm from Italy too. I'm an amateur archaeologist; my interests are mainly prehistory, ancient and medieval history.

Don't have time to read your post now, but certainly will get back to it tomorrow. I'll send you my opinions.

Best regards.
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,030
Portugal
“My question is, how could such a developed culture go unnoticed by contemporary civilizations?”
I don’t think that we can say that they got unnoticed or otherwise. Besides the theory that the Sherden were Sardinians leads quite the opposite way.


Finally, Tarshish was often mentioned in relation to its huge deposits of silver, and Sardinia is the richest region in silver together with Iberia in all of Europe, so much that the Greeks called it the "silver island", the name Tarshish itself seems to originate from a Semitic term meaning silver/area rich in silver.
There are some unfounded claims that the Tartessian Civilization in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula is Tartish, because it also checks with the few tips that we have about Tartish. The thing is that half a dozen checks aren’t enough to establish a solid link.

Furthermore the contact between the East and West of the Mediterranean seem to be made quite soon, in the Neolithic or in the Chalcolithic. Curiously today I already posted in another thread an archaeological site, in Portugal, that seems to reveal contacts with the East of the Mediterranean, see http://historum.com/ancient-history/127431-pre-classical-european-architecture-engineering.html, post 10.

I think that for now it is all very inconclusive, and quite difficult to establish a direct link between any of the civilizations we know, and the few data that we have about Tartish.
 
May 2017
219
Italy
I don’t think that we can say that they got unnoticed or otherwise. Besides the theory that the Sherden were Sardinians leads quite the opposite way.
Not necessarily, the name Tarshish could refer to the island or a particular city/region.




There are some unfounded claims that the Tartessian Civilization in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula is Tartish, because it also checks with the few tips that we have about Tartish. The thing is that half a dozen checks aren’t enough to establish a solid link.
Tartessus and Tarshish might have not been the same thing, Tartessus is mentioned by Herodotus but it's hard to say he was reliable, later, Roman authors identify it as a lost city in Iberia, but Tarshsih seems to be an island, though I agree that there still isn't conclusive evidence, some say Tarshish could have indicated the west in general, especially the areas rich in silver, thus including both Sardinia and Iberia, and that later Tarshish became known as Tartessus and was used to indicate only the region in Iberia.

Furthermore the contact between the East and West of the Mediterranean seem to be made quite soon, in the Neolithic or in the Chalcolithic. Curiously today I already posted in another thread an archaeological site, in Portugal, that seems to reveal contacts with the East of the Mediterranean, see http://historum.com/ancient-history/127431-pre-classical-european-architecture-engineering.html, post 10.
What evidence is there for Eastern Mediterranean presence/influence in the Portuguese site you have mentioned?

Tulius;2755191I said:
think that for now it is all very inconclusive, and quite difficult to establish a direct link between any of the civilizations we know, and the few data that we have about Tartish.
I agree, mine is a suggestion, but Sardinia seems like the best candidate for Tarshish, also note that when Sardinia gets conquered by Carthage (530 bc), Tartessus stops being mentioned for several centuries, only later Romans start talking about it again.
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,030
Portugal
Not necessarily, the name Tarshish could refer to the island or a particular city/region.
Sorry, didn’t understood the “Not necessarily” as an answer to my sentence, I was talking about the theory Sardinia/Sherden. Note that I was talking about it not agreeing or disagreeing with it. But I agree with what you wrote after the coma: “the name Tarshish could refer to the island or a particular city/region”

Tartessus and Tarshish might have not been the same thing, Tartessus is mentioned by Herodotus but it's hard to say he was reliable, later, Roman authors identify it as a lost city in Iberia, but Tarshsih seems to be an island, though I agree that there still isn't conclusive evidence, some say Tarshish could have indicated the west in general, especially the areas rich in silver, thus including both Sardinia and Iberia, and that later Tarshish became known as Tartessus and was used to indicate only the region in Iberia.
Again, the known connections between Tartessus and Tarshish are quite, quite thin. Same can be said for all the connections made with Tarshish until now.

What evidence is there for Eastern Mediterranean presence/influence in the Portuguese site you have mentioned?
Specifically for the site, as far as I know it is a working theory, as I said in my previous posts, most of the reports for “Zambujal” are in Portuguese or German (there was a German team there). To begin the link that I provided to Wikipedia is not bad, and has the sources mentioned (in Portuguese). If you want more links, I can provide them (in Portuguese).

For the Iberian Peninsula in more general terms is quite accepted. And I believe that I can find something in English, if you want.

I agree, mine is a suggestion, but Sardinia seems like the best candidate for Tarshish, also note that when Sardinia gets conquered by Carthage (530 bc), Tartessus stops being mentioned for several centuries, only later Romans start talking about it again.
There is a story/myth about the Carthaginian conquest and subsequent destruction of Tartessus. I can’t remember the primary source by memory, but I can check it out if you want. As for Sardinia being the best Candidate for Tarshish, I am personally skeptical. Again, I am also skeptical for Tartessus, just mentioned it because I know that is also a common link made.
 
May 2017
219
Italy
Specifically for the site, as far as I know it is a working theory, as I said in my previous posts, most of the reports for “Zambujal” are in Portuguese or German (there was a German team there). To begin the link that I provided to Wikipedia is not bad, and has the sources mentioned (in Portuguese). If you want more links, I can provide them (in Portuguese).

For the Iberian Peninsula in more general terms is quite accepted. And I believe that I can find something in English, if you want.
Yes, please, I have read about a few Minoan jugs being uncovered in Southern Italy and maybe Sardinia, and later Mycenean pottery being uncovered in much larger quantities in Sardinia and Southern Italy, but never in Iberia, I have read some publications mentioning a few Cypriots/Aegean objects found in Iberia and probably mediated by the Nuragics according to the authors of this article:

http://www.raco.cat/index.php/CuadernosArqueologia/article/viewFile/276368/392932
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,030
Portugal
Yes, please, I have read about a few Minoan jugs being uncovered in Southern Italy and maybe Sardinia, and later Mycenean pottery being uncovered in much larger quantities in Sardinia and Southern Italy, but never in Iberia, I have read some publications mentioning a few Cypriots/Aegean objects found in Iberia and probably mediated by the Nuragics according to the authors of this article:

http://www.raco.cat/index.php/CuadernosArqueologia/article/viewFile/276368/392932
Ok. You just gave me some homework! :D

I hope I can prepare a more detail post later on, at home, with access to my books. Anyway my previous post was a bit shorter that I had intended because I had to attend someone.

And thanks for the link to the article… I don’t read in Italian for ages, but the theme deserves the effort.
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,030
Portugal
About Zambujal and the 1968 diggings:

http://www.patrimoniocultural.gov.pt/static/data/publicacoes/o_arqueologo_portugues/serie_3/volume_4/escavacoes_zambujal.pdf

About the findings see page 100 and following, with for instance a reference in page 101 (first paragraph) to the Aegean Axe, in page 102 to the pin. Note in the end of the page 103 the references to the contacts with North of Africa and Egypt.

The article is in Portuguese but in the page 107 there is a summary in English.

More recent works underlined these Eastern links.

More generic about the Iberian Peninsula:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Iberia#Neolithic, see the reference to the Cardium Pottery Neolithic culture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Iberia#Chalcolithic, see the reference to the possible Eastern influences.

The Wikipedia article basically follow F. Jordá Cerdá et al., Historia de España I: Prehistoria, 1986.

H.N. Savory in his “Spain and Portugal” stated that the Aegean and Anatoly were the foreign sources of the materiel culture of the Tejo in the early Chalcolithic. Gordon Childe, in the 1950’s, had already traced links between the “Almeria Culture” (Spain) and the North of Africa, including Egypt – on both I am following notes of the Portuguese Carlos Tavares da Silva, in the chapter “Chalcolithic”, in “Pre-history of Portugal” by Armando Coelhor Ferreira da Silva, Luís Raposo and Carlos Tavares da Silva.

H.N. Savory: https://www.amazon.com/Spain-Portugal-Prehistory-Iberian-Peninsula/dp/0500020582

Apparently this recent book: https://books.google.pt/books?id=MJWcSRSz9wEC&redir_esc=y, follows Childe’s theory.

Online I got in Approaches to the History of Spain, by Jaime Vicens Vives:
https://books.google.pt/books?id=GSqzccUPwMMC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false, you can see online the pages 7 to 14 about this. In page Vicens dates the first influences from the year 3000 BC.

For a later period, the Spanish historian José María Blázquez in his “El MediterraneoY España en la Antiguedad” says that there were commercial links with the East Mediterranean Sea, as attest the excavations in “Fuente Álamo” and “Cueva de la Pastora”, related with the XVIII Egyptian Dynasty.

Gades (Cadiz) on the “island of Erytheia” is attested as a Phoenician (from Tyre) colony quite early. Possible around 1100 BC, so previous to Carthage, and according to many historians to trade with the Tartessian region (for instance, Chapter “Spain”, page 281, by the Spanish Maria Eugenia Aubet Semmleer , in the book “The Phoenicians”, edited by the Italian Sabatino Moscati: https://www.amazon.com/Phoenicians-Sabatino-Moscati/dp/1850435332

About Gades/Cadiz/Erytheia: http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/5078/4850

We should also remember that the designation Columns of Hercules to the Strait of Gibraltar possible indicates early Aegean travels, as some other myths of Hercules Works seem to point (The Cattle of Geryon).
 
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May 2017
219
Italy
Gades (Cadiz) on the “island of Erytheia” is attested as a Phoenician (from Tyre) colony quite early. Possible around 1100 BC, so previous to Carthage, and according to many historians to trade with the Tartessian region (for instance, Chapter “Spain”, page 281, by the Spanish Maria Eugenia Aubet Semmleer , in the book “The Phoenicians”, edited by the Italian Sabatino Moscati:
Actually Gadir, and any other Phoenician colony in the Western Mediterranean for that matter, isn't older than the late 9th century bc, the 1100 bc date is based upon what some Greek historian said, but archaeological evidence actually tells a different story, Phoenicians are not documented anywhere in the W.Med before the 9th century bc.

And regarding the other things you have listed, none of that is proof of a direct contact with Eastern Mediterraneans people in the bronze age, yes neolithic peoples from Anatolia migrated towards and populated Iberia (and the rest of Europe) in the spawn of several centuries, but that's a different concept.
 
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Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,030
Portugal
Actually Gadir, and any other Phoenician colony in the Western Mediterranean for that matter, isn't older than the late 9th century bc, the 1100 bc date is based upon what some Greek historian said, but archaeological evidence actually tells a different story, Phoenicians are not documented anywhere in the W.Med before the 9th century bc.
Actually I almost agree with you, even if you now seem to want disagree with me. If I continue to follow the chapter previously mentioned. The 1100 was not by some Greek historian, named Strabo, and by Velleius Paterculus. And, still following the same Spanish historian, Phoenician/Easter Influences did not appear in Cades before 770-760 BC. Even if “Escavations in the Phoenician Gadir have not been possible, since the ancient town is situated under modern Cadiz. Only occasionally when building takes place, has it been possible to gain access to the deeper levels…”

In other words we need to dig deeper to know more.

And regarding the other things you have listed, none of that is proof of a direct contact with Eastern Mediterraneans people in the bronze age
Agreed again. The contact could have been direct or not. The findings prove contact. Not direct contact. You are mentioning direct contact for the first time.
 
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