The Nuragic Civilization

Aug 2018
143
Italy
Bronze lamp:


Handle of a nuragic dagger made out of elephant's ivory:


Dagger with its bone handle still intact from Sardara:



Thinker or musician? from Sardara:



Stone nuraghe model from Barumini (Su Nuraxi):





Sandstone nuraghe model from Mont'e Prama, it's been recently discovred (2017):



Votive boat from Ogliastra:



Bronze daggers from Siniscola, 1600-1500 bc:



Nuragic bronze statuettes recently confiscated from the black market:



 

sparky

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
2,548
Sydney
Doesn't look much Punic or Iberian , not Etruscan either , maybe just a scratch record
the verticals were used in old Berbers alphabet among others
from the location and contacts of Nuraghia , the whole Med is possible
 
Aug 2018
143
Italy
==Nuraghe Mereu, Orgosolo==

A complex nuraghe located on a high hill dominating the surrounding landscape. It's made up of a main tower surrounded by a bastion with two smaller towers. The complex was built with limestone blocks.







The tholos, still intact:











==Nuraghe Appiu, Villanova monteleone==

A complex nuraghe, the mast, whose upper portion is missing, is today around 15 meters tall and is surrounded by a bastion with four smaller towers, the courtyard inside the bastion was originally vaulted.
The large surrounding settlement contains more than 200 dwellings, many of them were centered around a central courtyard.

The nuraghe, still partially buried (the floor is 2 meters below the dirt):





Remains of some of the houses of the large settlement:





The high "courtyard", originally vaulted:



 
Aug 2018
143
Italy
==Nuraghe Lugherras, Paulilatino==
This nuraghe consisted of a central tower surrounded by a bastion of four other towers and an additional outer wall, it was built during the second half of the second millennium bc. The whole complex is still partially buried by the ground.

Doorway of the main tower:





Tholos:





Courtyard:











Old photo:



Stairs:





Planimetry of the nuraghe:



Outside view:



 
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Aug 2018
143
Italy
==Distillation and distilled beverages in late bronze age Sardinia==

External batten jars. As already proposed at the time by Lilliu and also by Contu, some vases from the Nuragic repertoire may have been destined for distillation. The first were identified at the nuraghe Nastasi di Tertenia (in the photo, 1120-900 BC) and in the villages of Serra Orrios and Punta Casteddu. These are olle characterized by a truncated-conical rim equipped with an external batten, with inverted elbow handles, and improperly defined, also in this case, bullish vessels. On the basis of comparisons with knowndistillation systems in other parts of the Mediterranean and the Near East, the vase would seem to be suitable for the same purpose. The outer batten can be functional to support a lid or alembic. Very ancient distillationapparatuses are known in the Near East, in Pakistan, in Crete and consist of a conical vase superimposed on an onion, both in ceramic. The operation consists in boiling a liquid in the pot, the steam rises in the conical lid, condenses and falls back into a sort of underlying ring. Also, in Cyprus vases with systems suitable for the same function were found , but of different types, in particular are known those of the small perfume factory identified to Pyrgos Mavroraki, where we found jugs and heads of alembic, associated with the distillation of essences and perfumes . In Sardinia, another vase is known, so far unique in its kind, found in the nuraghe the Prisjona di Arzachena, for which we can also assume the function of distiller. It is an ovoid with a narrow mouth and equipped with a wide perforated brim, which may have been associated with a possible lid or alembic, as the examples cited above. In both types of nuragic vases the liquid to be distilled was to be boiled, which evaporated touched a lid-alembic and condensed, depositing itself in the brim or strip. In the case of Arzachena the holes could serve as a blowhole or for the collection of the distillate. In favor of thedistillation function also there is also the fact that in the same environment from which the vase comes, equipped with a seat counter, 17 bowls were found, fragments of jugs and toothpicks, which can be connected to a common ritual consumption of drinks "From: A. Depalmas, C. Bulla, G. Fundoni, Functional analysis of the nuragic vascular repertoire, Forms for the preparation of food and drink., In Prehistory of Food, 50th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Institute of Prehistory and Protohistory, October 2015,



==Cookers in nuragic Sardinia==

"As for the methods used to cook food, the nuragic cuisine includes a variety of supports that avoided direct contact between the container and the embers of the hearth, including the horseshoe-shaped cooker, equipped with three raised appendages and bent ends to keep the vessels in balance, equipped with handles or sockets applied in the central wall for gripping and moving through holes in thick walls to promote the oxygenation of the fire and prevent the embers from extinguishing. Another form is the calefattoio, also equipped with elevated internal appendages, but probably with a different functionality, as it exposes the supported vessel - and therefore its contents - to a lower heat. For example, it would allow a cooling of the milk, useful in particular preparations such as yogurt, still traditional in the island. "From: Maria Grazia Melis, Daily Life In: Sardinia Nuragica History and materials Edited by: Alberto Moravetti, Paolo Melis , Lavinia Foddai, Elisabetta Alba, 2017, Carlo Delfino ed., Sassari, pp. 35-47

 
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Aug 2018
143
Italy
Thank you!

==Nuraghe Adoni, Villanova Tulo==

This nuraghe consists of a main tower surrounded by a bastion which included four towers. The nuraghe was provided with a cistern. Remains of peas, fava beans, grapevine and wheat were found inside the nuraghe along with abundant remains of animal meet: sheep and lambs, pigs, deer, birds, river molluscs (...) ", therefore, a fairly complete diet.. Corbels pertaining to the now missing battlement were found, and also a lead bar probably used to hold the stones of the nuraghe together. The remains of the stone village which surrounded the nuraghe are still visible.

Near one of the lateral towers, tower B, about forty bronze objects, almost all fragmentary (punches, axes, javelin points, spear tips, laminae, fragments of foils etc.). were found within a fairly narrow dispersion radius , The artifacts were perhaps part of a smelter's closet hidden in the high parts of the walls, precipitated to the ground after the collapse of the structures; to the same complex of bronzes two silver plates may be referred, one of which represents a feather.


The material used was mainly local limestone with the exception of some segments in trachyte whcih was non-existent in the area and therefore had to be carried from several kilometers away, the blocks were adapted to the different levels of the outcropping rock that has influenced its architecture and structural strength. Among the artifacts found there were 11 spindles,
a ceramic kit, including a neck vase with plastic decoration containing hundreds of charred seeds. The vessel was in association with 4 carbonized boards relevant to a wooden planking of about 60 cm in length. An almost intact bowl contained a closet of small fragments of copper ingots and bronze foils. In the last excavation carried out at the end of 2016 c.a. a large intact wooden beam was found buried


The nuraghe:













Grape:



Bronze sculpture found in the site:





fava beans, wheat, peas :



The lead bar used the upper blocks of the main tower together:



Overview of the nuraghe:



The nearby settlement:





Lateral tower:



The second chamber of the main tower:



 
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Aug 2018
143
Italy
==Nuraghe Mereu, Orgosolo==

A complex nuraghe located on a high hill dominating the surrounding landscape. It's made up of a main tower surrounded by a bastion with two smaller towers. The complex was built with limestone blocks.







The tholos, still intact:








This picture I've just found can give you a better idea of how nuraghe Mereu looks today:

 
Aug 2018
143
Italy
=The nuragic complex of La Prisgiona, Arzachena==

The nuraghe is of the tholos type. The building has a central tower (keep) and two side towers that form a bastion. The entrance to the keep is characterized by a massive lintel of 3.20 m in length. The central chamber has a tholos dome more than 8 meters high, and is equipped with three niches. The bastion is further protected by a wall that borders a large courtyard.within the wall perimeter we find the meeting hut, an exclusive place where the most influential people of the village gathered; inside this room archaeologists found a vase decorated with atypical shapes and decorations including snaked and bull heads.

Around the walls there is a village with about a hundred huts; but most of the village is still to be excavated. The huts are separated by paved paths, which give a good idea of the urban development of the town, and its complexity. An area composed of five huts highlighted the development of craft activities, which gave scholars the opportunity to hypothesise a higher production than that destined exclusively for the family, suggesting a production for trade.
The settlement was provided with a sewage system. Rain water reached the cistern through a system of covered raceways/water channels that ran through the village, the cistern was also provided with an overfull system.




The high doorway:





The sewage system:



The peculiar vase decorated with shaped and zoomorphic figures:









Bronze bracelet found in the site:



Overview:

 
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Aug 2018
143
Italy
==Nuraghe Oes, Giave==

The main tower, of basaltic rock, about 13 meters high, originally reached a height of 20 meters. The internal tholos room was divided into three rooms with wooden floors supported by slits and holes in the wall structure ( naturally, due to the perishable nature of the wood, the floors have been destroyed and unfortunately, even the vault has now collapsed). Next to the main tower there is also a two-level bastion, about 6 meters high today, which surrounds two other towers and the courtyard , the bastion is protected by an outer towered wall. The nuraghe is part of a larger settlement also consisting of a sacred area with an adjoining temple.








Courtyard



Lateral tower:



Reconstruction of the settlement, protected by an outer wall.

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