The Nuragic Civilization

Aug 2018
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Italy
==Sacred spring/spring temple of Noddule, Nuoro==

The sacred source of Noddule is a nuragic temple of the worship of the waters present in the nuragic complex of Noddule. It is inserted inside a sanctuary of the nuraghic waters cult in the settlement belonging to the complex nuraghe, preserving a large vestibule divided into two areas; the first is reminiscent of the rounds with a basin and the second is composed of steps that descend to the door of the well with two granite seats on either side.

The soul of the well is entirely in trachyte, the interior forms a perfectly circular chamber that intercepts the spring vein and the cover is made of polychrome trachyte blocks, placed in perfect seal creating a particular chromatic effect. The relief of the dome has, carved, an elongated recess similar to the cut of an eye.



Internal shot:



The structure built around the spring, with ashlar masonry below and rougher blocks above:



The small tholos inside:











==Nuraghe Longu, Padria==


The monument, a nuraghe made up of three towers, presents a beautiful wall in basaltic blocks in polygonal work arranged in regular rows. The entrance to the keep, with trapezoidal light is surmounted by a small exhaust window and it leads into a corridor with an ogive roof, splayed inwards, which leads to the circular plan chamber with a tholos roof. On the right of the room opens a niche, on the left the staircase that leads to the upper floor, of which only a few rows are left. To the side of the staircase, to the southeast, opens a large window.

In front of the main tower a mighty wall was placed on the right and two towers on the left facing a small courtyard. Around the nuraghe the remains of an extensive nuragic settlements were discovered. The complex is still partially buried.




The corridor leading to the main tower:



Stairs:



The tholos vault:







 
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Swords made up of arsenical copper from a burial at Sant'Iroxi, 17th century bc:







Arsenical copper sword from Maracalagonis, 17th century bc:









Bronze daggers, spear heads and other bronze weapons from Ottana, 17th century bc:





Short bronze swords from Olmedo, 13th-12th century bc:





Leaf shaped bronze sword from Siniscola, local production 12th-11th century bc:







Another one from Siniscola:



Leaf shaped sword from the Ogliastra region, 12th-11th century bc:





Locally made Huelva type sword, 10th century bc:

 
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Aug 2018
168
Italy
==The nuragic complex of Sa Sedda E Sos Carros, Oliena==

This stone settlement was founded around the 13th century bc and it covers an area of 4 hectares. A refined fountain is situated in the upper area of the settlement, it is a circular structure, with internal walls made of two-colored squared blocks - of white limestone and dark basalt- and with an equally accurate floor. On its walls there are mouflon heads carved in high relief that have a hole through which the water, which came from the canal built into the wall thickness, could gush into the circular monolithic basin placed at the center of the floor. The upper area was surrounded by a cyclopean wall and was provided with a drainage system for the rain water. The site yielded 149 kgs of metal artifacts. In the vicinity of the fountain there is a large circular structure with steps, which served as a pool for ceremonial ablutions. It was probably an environment where religious rituals of a domestic nature took place, which involved the use of sacred water. This structure changed over time the original destination becoming a storeroom for bronze objects waiting for a new processing cycle, and therefore could be linked to the presence of a fuseria workshop near the town.

The fountain:









Cyclopic wall dividing the upper area from the rest of the settlement:






Ruins of the upper area of the settlement:









Bronze askos found in the site:






Protomes belonging to a votive boat found at the site:



Ivory artifact found in the site:



Circular structure with basalt steps, a sort of pool for ritual baths:



Bronze pins found in the site:



Horse bite rivet in bronze, bronze spatula with bone handle and bronze awl from the site:



A little dog which was originally on the side of a broken ship:

 
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==Nuraghe Crabia, Bauladu==

The Crabia nuraghe is a monotower nuraghe in an excellent state of conservation that is characterized, as well as being placed in a natural environment particularly pleasant and charming, also for its particular architectural configuration that presents, among other things, the originality of a double staircase obtained in the intramural. The territory of Bauladu, in turn, is inserted in the center of a vast area that boasts, in absolute, the highest density of nuragic structure in the whole island. This suggests an intense attendance of these places, favored by the contiguity with the river Tirso, on which several rivers flow, whose flow was certainly much higher than at the time, and could therefore favor connections (and the consequent commercial opportunities) with the sea ports of the Gulf of Oristano and the wetlands of the Sinis. it is also interesting to observe how this nuraghe is placed at the center of an ordered "lattice" composed of several tens of virtual alignments that join groups of nuraghes never less than three in number, confirming the existence of a system of territorial planning








Tholos:





==Nuraghe Santa Barbara, Bauladu==

The central tower is dated to approximately to 1500 based on ceramic evidence from the middle bronze age found in a trance adjacent to the outer wall and in the lowest level of the west village. Surrounding the nuraghe is a large village enclosed by a monumental wall with two th three additional towers.
The western section of the village surrounding this five-towered nuraghe has yielded clear signs of metallurgical activity.
The section of Santa Barbara's West Village that has been excavated consists of a large paved plaza with a stone sidewalk skirting its western side.
The evidence of metallurgical activity is plentiful, including terracotta crucible used to create bronze statuettes, metal slags, terracotta crucibles that correspond to core sizes and the hollow shafts of spearheads, permitting the identification of a number of forms including pestles, hammers, picks, sword handles, votive objects and sprue through which molten metal was poured into the mould. Analysis of this material reveals techniques by which Nuragic metalworkers refined their production, e.g., adding lead to bronze to improve casting properties, and making moulds with layers of two different clays to assure the smooth surfaces of casted objects.
Thousands of pieces of scoria leggera, a vitrified siliceous material, have been found all over the site, and are indicative of high temperature operations.
The site is a true metal workshop, it provides convincing proof that the Nuragic people employed advanced metallurgical technologies in Late Bronze Age Sardinia.


Funnel and casting channel for the realization of a bronze figurine, from the site.



Ruins of the large settlement:







Tholos of the nuraghe:



==Stelae from the giant's tomb, of Luzanas Ozieri==





==Nuraghe Sanu, Chiaramonti==

Monotower nuraghe built with squared blocks, still partially buried.

==Nuraghe Santa Sabina, Silanus==



A monotower nuraghe (1500-1350 bc) next to a 11th century church. There was originally another room on the first floor of the nuraghe which is now completely missing.







Note the size of the boulders:



The tholos:






 
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Votive boat from the Borowski collection:



Warrior with a helmet provided with a visor, he's wearing a corslet (possibly made of leather) and on hsi back he carries some sort of pole or maybe a sideways sword, the peculiarity of this warrior si that he's wearing what looks like some sort of shorts/pants:



Warrior with a helmet provided with a visor, a crest and two horns:



Warrior with a horned helmet, round shield and a bent sword:





Head of a warrior with two horns and some sort of crest:





Archer:




Sandstone nuraghe model from Orroli:



Sandstone nuraghe model, archaeological museum of Cagliari:



Bronze button with a nuraghe model on it:



Soapstone slicker depicting a nuragic temple or a nuraghe:



Nuraghe shaped altar from Serra is Araus (Sinis):







Nuraghe models from Mont'e Prama:






Votive boat, depicting possible wooden elements for maneuvering the sail, Gaspering catalogu:



Offerer:



Bronze tripod:

 
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==Nuraghe Santa Barbara, Sindia==






== Nuraghe e Cresia, Barumini==

in 1990, unaware of the treasure that Casa Zapata (a 16th century villa belonging to spanish nobles) hid beneath it, work began on the realization of the museum project. Works that were immediately interrupted due to the discovery of the remains of an imposing complex nuraghe under the structures of the building. Since then there have been numerous excavation campaigns, still under way, and a museum project has been carried out that has tried to safeguard and not distort the building's construction and at the same time make the vision of the nuragic complex from the high, through a system of suspended walkways and glass floors.

Su Nuraxi 'e Cresia "is a three-lobed complex nuraghe, consisting of a central tower or "mast", around which there are three perimeter towers connected by rectilinear walls. It also has the particularity of being equipped with 2 courtyards, one inside the trilobed bastion, equipped with a well, and an external one connected to the first by an entrance placed in the south-east wall curtain. The archaeological excavations made since 2005 right in the outer courtyard have allowed to highlight the original flooring of the structure, consisting of a paving that we know is going back to the Recent bronze age (1400-1200 bc) thanks to the materials found there. The excavations carried out inside Casa Zapata and on the southern flank also highlight the presence of a double wall and structure pertaining to the settlement inside the walls. This nuragic complex is located near the more well known Su Nuraxi of Barumini (pg 3), they were probably both inhabited by the same community.








Wooden plank displayed in the Zapata museum from the nearby and more well known Su Nuraxi, dated with teh c14 technique to a period around 1470 bc. It was found inside the main tower of Su Nuraxi.



The well:



The main tower:







Nuraghe model from the nearby complex of Su Nuraxi:



 
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Italy
==Nuraghe Cuccurada, Mogoro==

is large nuraghe was built in various phases. First a corridor-nuraghe was built around the 18th century bc, not far from a nearby chalcolithic stone wall (2700-2200 bc), then around the 15th-13th century the whole structure was transformed into a "tholos" nuraghe, made up of a main tower surrounded by a bastion of four towers. Later on, during the early iron age the nuraghe and the nearby settlement were still inhabited, a nuragic bronze statuette dated to this period was recently found: it's one of the few nuragic bronze statuettes that has been found in a closed context that can be precisely dated, and it was dated to 940-790 bc thanks to the associated coals, the bronze statuette depicts a hunter killing a muflon with a spear, while his dog bites the deer in the neck. The pavement of the nuraghe was originally paved with cork.

The bastion of the nuraghe:








The cortyard:



Reconstruction of the nuraghe:



Huge corbel found in the site, originally it sustained the battlement:




The bronze figurine found inside:







 
Aug 2018
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Italy
==Nuraghe Nuracale, Scano Montiferro==

A large nuraghe consisting of a main tower surrounded by a bastion of four towers with a large courtyard. Nowadays the tower is around 11 meters high since the upper parts have collapsed. The bastion is surrounded by a vast settlement.









The tholos:



Lead bars for fixing the stones from the nuraghe:

"Another important aspect, which will be the subject of a stratigraphic survey in the next excavations, is the presence in the West sector (Figure 13) of a high pile of white sandstone and basalt slabs of various sizes and shapes (T-shaped, L-shaped , shelves etc.), some of which with cavities near the edges for the insertion of lead fixing bars "



==The use of lead to fix stone blocks together in nuragic Sardinia==

Lead bars were often used to fix the stone blocks belonging to the parapets of the nuraghi or sometimes in the stone blocks pertaining to the temples

Lead bar to unite stone blocks:



Stone ring which was originally the top portion of the parapet on top of the main tower of Nuraghe Arrubiu (Orroli), some of the stone blocks still have traces of the lead bars which united them together:







Reconstruction:



Lead bar to fix stone blocks togather from Su Nuraxi:



Holes for the lead bars from a nuragic structure enar nuraghe maiore:







==Corbels==

The corbels which sustained the stone parapets of the nuraghi can still be seen in place in some nuraghi, For instance they can be seen in one of the towers of Su Nuraxi (Barumini), the bastion was later strenghtened and amplified (probably around the 13th century bc) so the old tower had been absorbed by the more recent structure, but its parapet has not been dismantled:

 
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==Nuraghe Serbissi, Osini==

The frequentation of the site is attested from the 17th century. B.C. up to the 10th century B.C. This nuraghe consists of a main tower surrounded by a bastion of three smaller towers.
It is located at a height of 964 meters, built on a natural relief shaped by small squares. It is located at a height of 964 meters, built on a natural relief shaped by small squares. The nuraghe was also surrounded by a small settlement.
















==Nuraghe Orcini, Osini==

It's located on a height of 928 meters. The compositional aspect is very interesting: a mighty and high wall, with a linear development of 80 m. and residual height of 5m. , it incorporates 7 rooms and the main tower,.







==Nuraghe Sanu, Osini==

The Sanu nuraghe is located towards the end of the Truculu valley at km.6 from Osini. And high m.6 with a diameter of 12.50 m. Devoid of the top part. During the excavations, several open-circle bronze rings were found, with a very thin circular rod and rather pointed ends.
It has the classic plan of the typical single tower, with a vaulted tholos chamber. Considering the size of the base diameter, it seems to have reached quite a considerable height; the interior is not currently open due to the collapse that obstructs the room and the entrance. The well-finished masonry work is appreciated, both in the internal and external facing, made with well-hewn blocks and horizontally arranged rows.
Near the nuraghe there are two giants' tombs, typical expression of the Nuragic funerary architecture:






Bronze necklace with chains from the nuraghe:



==Nuraghe Orolio, Silanus==

Orolio is a complex nuraghe built predominantly in granite. The 12-13 meter-high central tower, originally flanked by another two or three towers, remains almost intact, missing only a few meters. The nuraghe has two overlapping tholos, still intact and connected by a main staircase and a secondary hidden staircase with a mezzanine. These constructive peculiarities make Orolìo one of the most interesting and suggestive nuraghi.
Despite its peculiarities, the nuraghe is in a state of total abandonment, the internal wall of the tholos of the second level has an extensive collapse. At the base of the nuraghe we can see the ruins of other nuragic constructions that are still not adequately investigated.



 
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Italy
==Giants' tombs of Madau, Fonni==

Near the hamlet of Pratobello, about 15 kilometers from Fonni, the highest village of the island, a nuragic necropolis emerges: four similar Giants' tombs stand on a plateau in the middle of the of valley of riu Madau, at the foot of the passage of Corr'e Boi, said so because it looks like a gigantic bull. The tombs, dating back to the Late Bronze Age (14th century bc) are perhaps connected to the nearby Nuraghic settlement of Gremanu, and they face the rising sun. They have been excavated and investigated, between 1982 and 1986.


Tomb A is the oldest and has the appearance of a sarcophagus made of large granite slabs stuck on the ground, which delimit the burial chamber. On the slabs you will see depicted magical-religious motifs and cups. One is the Stela of Madau: it presents symbols linked to the cycle of Nature or, perhaps, to the constellation of the Pleiades.The largest of the four tombs, tomb B has a 22 meter long funeral chamber and a wide exedra (24 meters of rope) with counter-seats (for votive offerings), which delimits the space for funeral ceremonies. In the sacred place, around the hearth (visible), the relatives of the dead gathered. At the center of the exedra there is an entrance door with an architrave on which, perhaps, was the toothed frieze formed by two blocks horizontally overlapping, which now lies on the ground. From the entrance you will enter the funeral chamber, almost intact, made of perfectly squared and horizontally arranged stone blocks. The roof is ogive, the flooring was part of an older tomb. The third tomb, tomb C is next to and similar to the previous one, is characterized by a large exedra that extends its arms to close a large circular area. The entrance to the funeral chamber opens at the center. Like the previous one, it was rebuilt on the remains of a more ancient dolmen tomb: you will notice it by the different masonry technique. The fourth tomb has not yet been explored. In the necropolis interesting findings have been found: nuragic pottery, trachyte betili, bronze bracelets and beads for glass paste necklace.









Inner gallery:







Overview:











 

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