The Nuragic Civilization

Aug 2018
Asiatic and African elephant ivory in third millennium bc Sardinia:

For the first time sophisticated analysis of pins and buttons from the hypogeum of Padru Iossu (Sanluri) highlight the chronological transition between the use of the ivory of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the almost exclusive of the North African elephant ( Loxodonta africana africana): towards the end of the III millennium BC, bell beaker culture B

"In the present work, we examine the personal adornment in proboscidean ivory from the Bell Beaker period at the hypogeum of Padru Jossu, Sanluri (Sardinia, Italy) currently preserved in the Museo Civico Archeologico Villa Abbas of Sardara. For the first time, a complete study –morphological, use wear and archaeometric– of this material has been conducted. The typological study established two categories: buttons and pins. Those categories were also subdivided into three groups respectively. Technological and functional analyses were made difficult by the strong degradation of the items and the presence of glue and varnish. The archaeometric study highlighted the diverse provenances of the proboscidean ivories, suggesting a chronological difference in the geographical sources, as well as in the mobility patterns implicit in the movements of the raw material. The ivory from the older Stratum iii is predominantly from the Asian elephant, and in the later Stratum ii the exclusive supplier species is the African Savannah elephant. It is also important to mention that in the ensemble from Stratum iii, one of the items seems related to the Eastern types of ossi a globuli, linking this Asian ivory with an Aegean and Oriental axis of mobilityLeón, José Miguel Morillo, Claudia Pau, and Jean Guilaine. " "The proboscidean ivory adornments from the hypogeum of Padru Jossu (Sanluri, Sardinia, Italy) and the mediterranean Bell Beaker." Zephyrus: Revista de prehistoria y arqueología 82 (2018): 35-63.

Aug 2018
The indecipherable Nuragic pin belonging to a nuragic pit tomb from Antas (10th-9th century bc) has now been classified with certainty as cipro-minoic or either cipro-syllabic by Massimo Perna, professor of Minoan and Mycenaean antiquities at the university of Naples

Aug 2018
==Nuraghe San Sebastiano, Gesico==

This is a large nuragic complex that has taken the name of the small rural church built on the remains of this ancient nuragic settlement, which consists of nine towers, three of which are part of the internal structure, and the other six connected by curtains they represented the robust outer walls, a defensive weapon against possible attacks to protect the complex.
In 1600 by order of the Roman sancta ecclesiae, its numerous towers were toppled to make room for the church of the same name.



Sep 2015
Boy oh boy. That was some thread ... !!!!!
Any one detail just gets more and more visible.
Hopefully thoroughly/properly appreciated ??!
I looked at every post, i swear ... :)

One thing however is the apparent emergence of warfare that may have taken place internally, between autonomous groups on Sardinia. And which might not clash with the economic and social functions of trade. The date range for the metal votive vessels and figurines is interesting.
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Aug 2018
==Nuraghe Diana, Quartu Sant'Elena==
Nuraghe Diana is a coastal nuragic complex dating back to the 2nd millennium BC located in the municipality of Quartu Sant'Elena, in the metropolitan city of Cagliari.
The site is located on a hill in the Is Mortorius area, from which you can enjoy a wide view of the Gulf of Cagliari. The nuraghe is a complex three-lobed type, that is, consisting of a central tower with a tholos roof, connected to two outer towers surrounded by a wall. During the Second World War a fort was built on the top of the main keep.




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Aug 2018
==Nuraghe Majore, Seneghe==
The structure, which is still buried for more than two meters, It is a four lobed nuraghe (a mast connected to a bastion with four tower) in polygonal basaltic stone, with a very high bastion and a frontal courtyard at the entrance to the keep.
Its monumentality is comparable to that of the nuraghe Losa of Abbasanta, but unfortunately it has not been possible to explore its interior because of the shrubs that surround the upper floor room that is preserved for half.
Access to the keep from the traditional entrance would be possible if it was not buried up to the height of the lintel, which leaves the unloading triangle uncovered.








Aug 2018
Bull's head with a rooster on top of it from the Sanctuary of Santa Vittoria Di Serri, the bull's head belonged to the bow of a votive ship :



Another votive ship with a bull's head, and a bird on top of it discovered in Sardinia and now kept in Lecce:



Votive boat from Oschiri:

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Aug 2018
The tholos of the main tower of Nuraghe Santu Antine was originally painted red:

It is still possible today to admire how many stones of tholos present evident traces of red paint, which in ancient times had to be extended to the whole room. This underlines, if it were still necessary, that this room (certainly the most important and significant of the whole building) was used for ceremonial and cultic purposes which unfortunately still escape us, also due to the small number of finds and data available to us. The use of dyes to paint the walls of environments is not in itself a fact that may surprise the prehistoric and protohistoric scholars of Sardinia, since numerous domus de janas have returned lively colors with shades of red, blue, black, yellow , white and shades of purple, on the contrary, it amazes that the most important environment of one of the most impressive and architecturally complex nuraghe of the island was painted in red.
In fact, the painting seems reserved, at least in the pre nuragic period, or to burial sites or places of worship. In this sense, the Santu Antine room finds a parallel with the small environment found inside the prehistoric altar of Monte d'Accoddi, also painted with red ocher. The comparison, therefore, with this place of worship, which was very previous to the construction of the Santu Antine, allows us to advance the hypothesis that the tholos of this nuraghe also had this intended use, supported in this sense also by the particularity of the internal structures just described.
What is impressive is also the high technical expertise achieved by the nuragic man . chemical The analyzes revealed that the color was obtained through a mix derived from the skilful mixing of: red ocher - hematite dispersed in a protein binder identifiable with animal glue, the whole was spread over a thin preparation composed of gypsum.
The peculiarity of this tholos, in conjunction with the recent discovery of the sacred well of the north tower, as well as the discovery of particular religious apparatuses, such as a small betile with offering table discovered by the Taramelli in the second floor chamber of the central tower, and also the presence inside the central courtyard of a large trench-shaped elliptical structure measuring 2X4 meters and a depth of 2 meters, at the bottom of which was found a large fireplace and numerous ceramic fragments, which connect this structure once again with ritual practices .



==The holy well of Genoni==

A small temple and a very interesting selection of finds were unveiled at a depth of 40 meters: Roman coins and a winch to catch water. Among the most significant of the nuragic age a jug hooked to the end of a votive sword, the handle of a dagger made of elephant ivory, two small bronzes depicting male figures.

All stored at the Sanna Museum in Sassari. "To complete and increase the knowledge of the well, the scientific director of the Parc, Luigi Sanciu, carried out a technical-geological analysis of the material used for the construction and of the geological composition of the slope on the hill - explains Michele Zucca t - The observation of the rocks, as well as confirming the use of materials coming also from 20 kilometers away, presupposes various hypotheses of construction for this unique structure that is about 40 meters deep. One of the most interesting finds is that of a bronze linchpin pertaining to a war chariot with an animal sculpted on it dated to the final bronze age/early iron age (1150-750 bc) and similar to contemporary artifacts from Egypt, Cyprus, The Near East and Central Europe".



The tympanum belonging to a Nuragic temple found inside the well:



Zoomorphic licnhpin probably belonging to a chariot:


Horn blower:



Aug 2018
News: Nuragic pottery has recently been identified in Portugal, at Sabugal, did the Nuragic Sardinians reach Portugal?

"It is called Sabugal, it is today a small city on the border between Portugal and Spain, but thousands of years ago it was an important mining center. Here archaeologists have found some ceramics dating back to the Iron Age (ninth century BC), decorated with the classic signs and timbres of the Nuragic civilization. For scholars it is evidence of the exchanges between the ancient populations of Sardinia and the people who inhabited the Iberian peninsula that began almost three thousand years ago. Until today, Sabugal is the westernmost find for this type of nuragic artifacts. The hypothesis is that the people of the nuraghi traded ceramics in exchange for the tin and copper of which this Iberian plateau is rich. Idea that is based on the latest findings of the team of archaeologists of Sabugal who found remains of an iron age settlement on the outskirts of the town.

A few days ago we learned that these ceramics are decorated with molds and waves, signs made with animal bones, characteristic of prehistoric decorations found in Sardinia, "Marcos Osorio, archaeologist of the municipality of the Portuguese city, declared to the local press . The Department of Archeology of Sabugal will launch a series of investigations to demonstrate the exchanges and cultural influence that the ancient inhabitants of the island have left on the Iberian Peninsula. "The wealth of tin and copper should be compared to that of gold and oil in our day - said Marcos Osorio -. In Sabugal during the Iron Age people came from the south of the Iberian Peninsula in search of the metal. For example, in the excavations were found pottery of the opulent and refined civilization of the Tartessos, in southern Spain, (between 1200 and 500 years before Christ). They brought clay and in exchange they took the metal. " Other ceramics decorated with timbres and concentric circles, typically Nuragic, have also been found at other sites in the nearby provinces of Salamanca and Avila.

«The news of the discovery of Pottery from Nuragic Sardinia in the Iberian Peninsula is not new; However, this represents a further and important card in the reconstruction of the interactions between the island and the surrounding world » Franco Campus, an archaeologist and an expert of the civilization of thousands of towers, explains.

«For some years now, the hypotheses about the vivacity of the Nuragics and their role as prominent actors in the political and economic dynamics of the Mediterranean between the 14th and 9th centuries BC have become more and more supported by incontrovertible data »continues Franco Campus. The discovery adds to those already known in the Iberian peninsula such as that of Huelva, at the mouth of the Guadiana, Tunah Al-Jabal, Cadiz (El Castillo de Dona Blanca and the sanctuary of the Carambolo-Seville, in southern Andalusia, up to Malaga ( Toscanos and Las Chorreras).

"These findings and the contemporary ones, we are around 900 BC, like those of Carthage and Tyrrhenian Etruria are, in truth, the result of a network of contacts that sink its roots many centuries before, in the full Bronze Age (around the 1400 BC) - the Sardinian scholar explains again -. Pottery of Sardinian origin (a fact not only due to simple formal affinity but also due to sophisticated analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of clays), have been identified for example in Crete - in the port of Kommos, a site a short distance from the palace of Festòs, but also from Tiryns; in Cyprus - at the site of Pyla Kokkinokremos on the south-west coast of the island -, and then in Sicily, in the Cannatello area in Agrigento and in Lipari in the protohistoric village on the island's acropolis. The ceramics and even more the bronzes (think of the ingots or talents of pure copper with the characteristic shape of a ox hide, swords, axes) and other types of artefacts (amber, tin, ivory), are " the wrecks of a shipwreck "- concludes Franco Campus -, the shreds of a still partial story but of which archeology that, it is opportune to remember it is scientific discipline, tries, with its methodologies that are peculiar, and with the support of other sciences, to reconstruct the "Chapters" of very intricate and complex relationships »

Commercianti e navigatori: i nuragici si spinsero fino al Portogallo - Tempo Libero - la Nuova Sardegna

Cerámica de estampillas, la conexión milenaria entre Cerdeña e Iberia
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