The Nuragic Civilization

Aug 2018
220
Italy
impressive stone age constructions and bronze sculptures, but still it cannot be called a civilization, since it had no cities.

regards
It's called Nuragic civilization in most texts and archaeological publications so I call it that, it's debatable whether some of the larger settlements such as that of San Sperate and some others could be called cities considering their size, the planning, the presence of public spaces and religious buildings and that these settlements probably controlled smaller settlements in the countryside. For example the settlement of Sant'Imbenia which is considered by some archaeologies (Marco Rendeli for example) to be a proto state seems to have had control of smaller settlements.
Anyway I suppose you meant stone constructions, not "stone age constructions", considering all Nuraghi were built between the 18th and 12th century bc, so during the Middle and Late Bronze age, though 80-90% of them were built between the 15th and the 13th century bc, while the well temples are dated to the 14th-10th century bc so Late bronze Age/Early iron age, same as the megaron and antis temples.
Most archaeologists call civilization regardless of whether they were urbanized or not, considering that the amount of impressive structures and infrastructures built in such a short period of time implies a very high level of organization and control of the territory even if they weren't a conventional urban civilization but had a more sparse settlement pattern with clusters of Nuraghi controlling certain areas.
You can call it a culture if you prefer, the line between settlement, proto city and city is very thin and honestly I think it's irrelevant, the conventional models of societal development are often inaccurate and hard to apply to some cultures such as this one which reached a high level of cultural and technological development despite lacking some features common to urban civilizations.
 
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It's called Nuragic civilization in most texts and archaeological publications so I call it that, it's debatable whether some of the larger settlements such as that of San Sperate and some others could be called cities considering their size, the planning, the presence of public spaces and religious buildings and that these settlements probably controlled smaller settlements in the countryside. For example the settlement of Sant'Imbenia which is considered by some archaeologies (Marco Rendeli for example) to be a proto state seems to have had control of smaller settlements.
Anyway I suppose you meant stone constructions, not "stone age constructions".
Personally I don't see anything wrong about calling it a civilization regardless of whether they were urbanized or not, considering that the amount of impressive structures and infrastructures built in such a short period of time implies a very high level of organization and control of the territory even if they weren't a conventional urban civilization but had a more sparse settlement pattern with clusters of Nuraghi controlling certain areas.
these do look like stone age constructions, just like some in other parts of europe, scotland, malta, france etc, these constructions look very crude, there are also stone towers in pre civlized scotland as well, so these constructions must have been known through out pre civilized europe as well.

regards
 
Aug 2018
220
Italy
these do look like stone age constructions, just like some in other parts of europe, scotland, malta, france etc, these constructions look very crude, there are also stone towers in pre civlized scotland as well, so these constructions must have been known through out pre civilized europe as well.

regards
The Brochs in Scotland can't be compared to the Nuraghi in either number, size, internal structure or exterior structure.
Except for the Mousa Broch and a few others most Brochs were originally just large roundhouses, whereas the average (original height) of a Nuraghe tower is around 12 meters and the tallest were up to 25-30 meters.
Most Nuraghi were also built with blocks weighting several tons, take Barumini for example where each of the stones used to build the external part of the bastion weighted almost 2 tons each, whereas Brochs were usually built with very small stones except for the lintel stones, so the effort and resources needed to build them can't be compared, and in some cases the stones needed for the Nuraghi were carried from more than 50 kilometers away.
The very structure of a Broch is very different from that of a Nuragic tower since Nuraghi towers were stone towers with 2/3 chambers covered by a tholos ceiling, while the Brochs were only covered by a strawroof and had no stone ceilings in either of the floors, whereas Nuragic towers ended with a balcony sustained by stone corbels sometimes very heavy.
Not to mention that 30% of the Nuraghi were comprised by multiple towers and corridors whereas the Brochs are always lonely towers/roundhouses, so some nuraghi such as Santu Antine had monumental ogival corridors, sometimes on multiple levels. And as I said above the number of structures can't be compared, the number of Nuraghi is estimated to be around 7000 so considering that a good deal of them is made up of several different towers we're talking about more than 30,000 towers, whereas the number of Brochs is estimated to be around 200-500.
Last but not least one shouldn't forget that Nuragics didn't just built nuraghi but also the monumental giants' tombs (more than 800), well temples (95-150 according to different estimates), megaron and antis temples (also around 100 or more) plus a variety of other structures such as fountains, pools, and other atypical structures and infrastructures.
Comparing the Nuragics to the Broch builders just because a few Brochs are superficially similar to the Nuragic towers is like comparing Neolithic Sardinians to Sumerians just because Monte D'Accoddi is vaguely similar to a Ziqqurat.
What's impressive about the Nuragics is the number and variety of the structures they built, not the structures themselves, along with the large number of figurative art. Though arguably even some structures alone such as Santu Antine, Barumini, Arrubiu, Santa Cristina or Su Tempiesu are more impressive than any other prehistoric European monument even when taken separately.

This is not to say the Brochs aren't impressive, considering that they were built in such harsh condition as those of Orkney it's amazing to find such structures there, but it should also be remarked that Nuraghi and Brochs have complete have a complete different chronology, Nuraghi were built, as I said above, from roughly 1800 bc to 1200 bc, whereas Broch date from 500 bc to 200 AD, so the were built during antiquity, either way neither the Nuraghi nor the Brochs can be labeled "stone age" structures.
 
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plus a variety of other structures such as fountains, pools, and other atypical structures and infrastructures.
the basics of civilization requires mathematical order of the infrastructure

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this seems very much like french, spanish pre civilized settlements made of stone

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A Castro village in Castro de Baroña, Galicia, Spain


chambers covered by a tholos ceiling while the Brochs were only covered by a strawroof and had no stone ceilings in either of the floors
here you go mate, dragon houses of ''civilized greece''

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Aug 2018
220
Italy
the basics of civilization requires mathematical order of the infrastructure

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this seems very much like french, spanish pre civilized settlements made of stone

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A Castro village in Castro de Baroña, Galicia, Spain




here you go mate, dragon houses of ''civilized greece''

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What you have posted are a Celtic settlement and a Helladic or Minoan tomb, both the Celts and the Bronze age Aegeans are considered civilizations.
As I said above some settlements do have a planned outline (if that's what you mean by "mathematical order") such as that at San Sperate where the houses were built oriented to the cardinal points, and where a large squared street divided the settlement.

Some units of measuraments were used by the Nuragics as it's observed by archaeologists in temples such as Domu De Orgia (Esterzili)

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And if by "mathematical order" you mean an elegant structures there are several examples from the Nuragic civilization such as Santa Cristina:
(Unfortunately most os the images I've uploaded aren't available now)

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Su Tempiesu, Orune

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Predio Canopoli:




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Irru, Nulvi:



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And in many other structures
 
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Likes: Ashoka maurya
Aug 2018
220
Italy
What you have posted are a Celtic settlement and a Helladic or Minoan tomb, both the Celts and the Bronze age Aegeans are considered civilizations.
As I said above some settlements do have a planned outline (if that's what you mean by "mathematical order") such as that at San Sperate where the houses were built oriented to the cardinal points, and where a large squared street divided the settlement.

Some units of measuraments were used by the Nuragics as it's observed by archaeologists in temples such as Domu De Orgia (Esterzili)

View attachment 17258
And if by "mathematical order" you mean an elegant structures there are several examples from the Nuragic civilization such as Santa Cristina:
(Unfortunately most os the images I've uploaded aren't available now)

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Predio Canopoli:




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Irru:



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And in many other structures
Some other Nuragic structures which employed refined masonry:

Nulvi, Nuraghe Alvu:



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Serri, Santa Vittoria:


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Sa Sedda E Sos Carros (Oliena) in its original appearance:




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Nurdole, Orani, sacred pool:



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Likes: Ashoka maurya
Aug 2018
220
Italy
==Nuraghe Sorolo, Birori==
Monotower nuraghe, still partially buried.


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==Nuraghe Gessitu, Ierzu==



At the top, hidden by rocks, lies the Nuraghe Gessìtu. Singular nuraghe. More than a nuraghe, it can be said that it is a Nuragic turret, as the monument has no room. It is provided only with a staircase, still in good condition that leads to the terrace.



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==Nughedu San Nicolò: Nuragic Sanctuary of Cùcuru Mudeju==

On the wall of a small hill the remains of what must have been a vast and enchanting sacred area resurface. Unfortunately there is not much left, since over the millennia the site has suffered great devastation, but those few residual segments are enough to make us understand how elegant this temple was in the period of its maximum splendor.

It comes with circular ritual structures, where seats are highlighted along the entire inner circumference. Numerous basalt and trachytic T-shaped ashlar blocks populate the entire site; they are perfectly worked and finished. In a sudden flashback this brings the observer back to other Sardinian sanctuaries, like, for example, Gremanu (in Fonni), Serra Niedda (in Sorso), Santa Vittoria (in Serri), about Monte (in Sorradile), Giorrè and Punta de Onossi ( in Florinas), Corona Arrùbia (in Genoni), Carcaredda (in Villagrande Strisaili) and Monte Sant'Antonio (in Siligo); it is clear, that the type of stone used (basalt and trachytic tuff) and the shape of the ashlars is similar in all the nuragic sanctuaries scattered throughout the entire island.
The site of Nughedu San Nicolò remains, however, unique in its kind, thanks to the sculptural testimony that has come down to us from the mists of time and kept in the local museum. An elegant and refined bovine head (also known as "Toro Nero"), made of "black" trachyte which, once again, testifies not only to the skill of the stonemasons of the past, but also possibly to the devotion of the Nuragics to the bull god.
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Aug 2018
220
Italy
The well temple of Is Pirois, which I've psoted before. One of the few well temples where the structure above the ground remains:



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Another nice shot of Nuraghe Orolio. The mast, originally flanked by two smaller towers, now buried and collapsed.



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