The Nuragic Civilization

Feb 2018
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No, they were only meant for the dead, as traces of domestic use were never found inside them, they replicated the houses of the living, some Neolithic houses with a similar shape to the Domus de janas were in fact found, but it's rare to find ruins of Neolithic houses since they were mostly made of perishable materials such as wood.
In the case of the Monte Claro and surely of the Bonnanaro burials, the Domus De Janas were just re-used, they weren't carved for those occasion, they were tombs belonging to older cultures such as the Ozieri culture.
The dating of the San Ciriaco burial is strange, since the culture is dated to the second half of the fifth milllennium bc, not the fourth, 3500-3100 bc should be Sub Ozieri or Ozieri I think.
my thoughts exactly, MA89 def. overlaps with a later period so he ought to be more ozieri rather than san ciriaco, but tomb 12 in specifics does seem to have some older affiliations
NECROPOLI DI CANNAS DI SOTTO, CARBONIA. LO SCAVO DELLATOMBA12. NOTIZIA PRELIMINARE

thats something i also gathered from the lit. that the domus de janas were (re)used by successive cultures even overlapping/parallel to the giant's tombs of the Chl./EBA whose oldest types inturn seem to derive from the domus de janas of sos furrighesos; for the corridor tombs i get the impression that the grave goods are more extensive and prominant than of the giant's tombs, though thats prob due to the period itself that was more imbedded extensive trade
a map of the amber beads (A tyrants B allemiere) types of the LBAII(1200-100BC)

 
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Aug 2018
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my thoughts exactly, MA89 def. overlaps with a later period so he ought to be more ozieri rather than san ciriaco, but tomb 12 in specifics does seem to have some older affiliations
NECROPOLI DI CANNAS DI SOTTO, CARBONIA. LO SCAVO DELLATOMBA12. NOTIZIA PRELIMINARE

thats something i also gathered from the lit. that the domus de janas were (re)used by successive cultures even overlapping/parallel to the giant's tombs of the Chl./EBA whose oldest types inturn seem to derive from the domus de janas of sos furrighesos; for the corridor tombs i get the impression that the grave goods are more extensive and prominant than of the giant's tombs, though thats prob due to the period itself that was more imbedded extensive trade
a map of the amber beads (A tyrants B allemiere) types of the LBAII(1200-100BC)

Great map, thank you. Just like for the oxhide ingots Sardinia has the highest concentration of amber beads in the Mediterranean during the Late bronze age. One would expect North Italy to have more considering their position, while Sardinia isn't exactly close to the Baltic sea but despite this it had the highest conentration of those beads, just like it had the most oxhide ingots despite being further away from Cyprus than Peninsular Italy, Sicily or Greece. The Nuragics on the other hand exported copper and lead, it is strange that they exported copper, which reached as far as Scandinavia, while the same time importing so many copper ingots from Cyprus.
 
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Aug 2018
255
Italy
Great map, thank you. Just like for the oxhide ingots Sardinia has the highest concentration of amber beads in the Mediterranean during the Late bronze age. One would expect North Italy to have more considering their position, while Sardinia isn't exactly close to the Baltic sea but despite this it had the highest conentration of those beads, just like it had the most oxhide ingots despite being further away from Cyprus than Peninsular Italy, Sicily or Greece. The Nuragics on the other hand exported copper and lead, it is strange that they exported copper, which reached as far as Scandinavia, while the same time importing so many copper ingots from Cyprus.
*Sardinia had the highest concentration of amber beads in the Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age

==Holy well of Sa Testa, Olbia==

The entire perimeter of the site is surrounded by a covered channel for collecting water which is then connected to the courtyard and then to the well, probably this water system was used to collect rainwater and convey it to provide the well itself with water.
A staircase of 17 steps, covered by a series of degrading architraves that seem to reflect the steps themselves, leads to the water level and therefore to the actual well, consisting of a circular chamber, in which water is collected, covered by tholos and above which there was a second tholos of which today only the base and the wall remain for about 50 cm
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==Holy well of Milis, Golfo Aranci==
The sacred well, one of the most important in the area, dates back to the mid-second millennium BC and it was frequented until the first half of the first millennium BC. It was partially damaged in the nineteenth century during the works for the construction of the nearby railway, but the underground part consisting of the stairway of 40 steps and the chamber with the well remains intact. The latter is about 10 meters high and has a circular plan with a tholos roof.

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Some new pictures of Nuraghe Piscu:

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Feb 2018
172
EU-Germany
Great map, thank you. Just like for the oxhide ingots Sardinia has the highest concentration of amber beads in the Mediterranean during the Late bronze age. One would expect North Italy to have more considering their position, while Sardinia isn't exactly close to the Baltic sea but despite this it had the highest conentration of those beads, just like it had the most oxhide ingots despite being further away from Cyprus than Peninsular Italy, Sicily or Greece. The Nuragics on the other hand exported copper and lead, it is strange that they exported copper, which reached as far as Scandinavia, while the same time importing so many copper ingots from Cyprus.
according to one view _Catacchio et al. 2006 most amber in LBA went along trade routes from the baltic to the adriatic yet the beads were distributed as finished products from centers in LHgreece and pos also frattesina, so this luxory good is def. part of the obvious and increasing contact [LBAI (RB)] with the eastern mediterranean

the ingots from cyprus are indeed the most mysterious from said contact, not only as you mentioned sardinia itself being an exporter of copper ore, these imported ingots were app. not used for manufacture; in begemann et al 2017 over 50 bronze artifacts from 4 diff. sites were analysed and _Of the bronzes, none has lead with an isotopic composition characteristic of copper ingots from Cyprus. All contain local lead, suggesting the bronze implements were manufactured locally so the cypriotic copper was def. not imported to be processed which overlaps with kaiser 2013 that most oxhide ingots from known context were indeed in 'Hoard' or 'Hoard in Cultic Context' in stark contrast to crete where all derive from 'Workshop' sites; in all very reminiscent of the funtana coberta hoard(?cult) incl votive swords by cu. ores from the sinai
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6064/5ca2fee8400902243b5ef96b2f011a385f5f.pdf

however these imports arrived (?trade/?piracy) they def. seem of a luxury(finished product) and even votive status
oxhide ingot finds -sardinia and crete
 
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==Nuraghe and sanctuary of Nurdole, Orani==

This complex was born as a complex nuraghe consisting of a bastion with four lateral towers and a mast around the 14th century bc. Towards the Final bronze age (1200-950 bc) the nuraghe and the surrouding area were transformed into a sanctuary, a ritual pool and a channel were thus built: a complex hydraulic system conveys the water into a large basin built outside the nuraghe. The adduction channel to the tank, which runs through the curtains of the bastion, is dug into rectangular ashlar trachyte blocks that are connected through a system of interlocking teeth, while a circular base, composed of rows of ashlars in a circle section, supported the beginning of the long channel. the water conveyed by the channel poured in the tub through a drainer. The tub itself was paved perfectly, with trachyte slabs. It contained holes for emptying and cleaning the tank.
The site yielded a wealth of finds from the Final bronze age to the Archaic period, it included both objects of local manufacture and imports from the Italian Peninsula, Iberia and the Levant, including an Egyptian scarab. The outer walls were decorated with stone slabs engraved with many enigmatic symbols. Unfortunately the complex was blown up by grave robbers, who sold many of the objects found, which ended up in private collections.

The pool:

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Courtyard inside the Nuraghe, with the fountain:

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The water channel connected to the pool:

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The Nuraghe and the outer wall:

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Stone slab with a trident:

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Some of the finds from Nurdole:
The head of a Nuragic bronze statuette:

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Nuragic jug in bronze foil with a spout in the form of a bull's head:

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Bronze statuette depicting a rooster:

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Bronze daggers with bronze hilts:

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Offerer with a robe and a stole:

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Votive ship with ducks, missing its prow:

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Bronze spear heads, bronze button in the shape of a complex Nuraghe, votive bronze quivers and imported fibulae from the Italian Peninsula:

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Some other finds from Nurdole:

Bird head, originally it was used to decorate the handle of a vase:
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Necklace with amber and vitreous paste beads:
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Engraved blocks from Nurdole (in the back), in the front there's a block from Gremanu:

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Bronze pilgrim flask:

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Priestess, warrior with a horned helmet, two shields and four eyes, similar to the ones from Teti and a man carrying a horn or a tree trunk:

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Small bronze shield, helmet and horn:

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Bronze statuettes of local production with Eastern influences:

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A group of statuettes, perhaps depicting a winner subjugating an enemy:

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Engraved stone blocks with bronze statuettes fixed over it with melted lead, the sculptures represent different animals including a small lion

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Ruins of the nuraghe today, after the explosion:


Fayence amulet with Egyptian motifs, of either Egyptian or Levantine production:

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Egyptian scarab, on the back there is a cartouche with hieroglyphic characters: "Neb-Maat-Ra" (Ra, lord of justice), one of the titles of the pharaoh Amenhotep III of the XVIII dynasty (1424/1397):

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The path to the sanctuary was marked by bronze spears fixed on the ground:

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Reconstruction of the courtyard with the fountain:

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The fountain before the explosion:

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Drawing of the ruins of the Nuraghe:

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Terracotta head:

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Engraved stone blocks:


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Bronze figurines depicting animals, including a fox:

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==Nuraghe Sa Paule Ruja, Illorai=

A big Nuraghe with a Nuragic village nearby, apparently it's a single tower Nuraghe, though it's hard to tell as it is largely hidden by the vegetation. It's not possible to get inside the tower since the access is obstructed by the debris, and the gate is some meters beneath the ground.
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==Nuraghe Longu, Samugheo-Fordongianus==

Described and drawn by La Marmora in the first half of the XIX century, at the time two of the overlying tholos chambers were still intact, and part of the third chamber was still visible, thus retaining the original slender look that many Nuragic towers have lost nowadays, and reaching a considerable height. I cannot find any recent pictures of the Nuraghe but unfortunately the tower has collapsed during this time.
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The Nuraghe was apparently still largely intact when Giovanni Spano drew it in 1867, Figure 5:
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Nuragic button with dear heads:

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Aug 2018
255
Italy
==Nuraghe Sa Paule Ruja, Illorai=

A big Nuraghe with a Nuragic village nearby, apparently it's a single tower Nuraghe, though it's hard to tell as it is largely hidden by the vegetation. It's not possible to get inside the tower since the access is obstructed by the debris, and the gate is some meters beneath the ground.
View attachment 22775
View attachment 22781
View attachment 22779
==Nuraghe Longu, Samugheo-Fordongianus==

Described and drawn by La Marmora in the first half of the XIX century, at the time two of the overlying tholos chambers were still intact, and part of the third chamber was still visible, thus retaining the original slender look that many Nuragic towers have lost nowadays, and reaching a considerable height. I cannot find any recent pictures of the Nuraghe but unfortunately the tower has collapsed during this time.
View attachment 22777
The Nuraghe was apparently still largely intact when Giovanni Spano drew it in 1867, Figure 5:
View attachment 22778
Nuragic button with dear heads:

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*Deer heads
Nuragic bronze figurine depicting what looks like a carpenter, unfortunately it's quite broken and ill preserved so it's not easy to tell:

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It looks just like the Nuragic carpenter from Paris, carrying a bag of tools on his back, and with a "gamma" dagger carried on his chest

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Some interesting details of the Nuragic boat from Turin. There seem to be two oarlocks and the man on the boat has braids like many other Nuragic figurines:

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As for the dating of the votive boats, of which I've written about before, most, such as this one, were taken out of their archaeological contexts by grave robbers, and many of those found during excavations were found in sanctuaries, which were used for long periods of time from the 13th century bc to the iron age and beyond.
One of the few votive boats coming from a more easily datable context is that found at Costa Nighedda (Oliena), in a hoard dated to the Final Bronze Age (12th-10th century bc):

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In Italy however they were found in later contexts, mostly from the 8th and 7th century BC, usually in Villanovan tombs, with the exception of that found in the Greek sanctuary of Hera Lacinia, which I have mentioned many times. The context where it was found dates to the second half of the 8th century bc, which is more or less the period when the sanctuary was founded:

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