Top 10 Roman Generals (Byzantine allowed)

Sep 2019
How did Monaeses do against Antony? I know only a little about his Parthian campaign.
Plutarch mentions him a few times in Life of Antony:

"Monaeses, a man of distinction and power, who came in flight to Antony. Antony likened the fortunes of the fugitive to those of Themistocles, compared his own abundant resources and magnanimity to those of the Persian kings, and gave him three cities, Larissa, Arethusa, and Hierapolis, which used to be called Bambycé. But when the Parthian king made an offer of friendship to Monaeses, Antony gladly sent Monaeses back to him, determined to receive Phraates with a prospect of peace, and demanding back the standards captured in the campaign of Crassus, together with such of his men as still survived. "
Oct 2018
And now, an update:

Julius Caesar (15 appearances)
Scipio Africanus (14)
Sulla (12)
Aurelian (11)
Constantine I (11)
Belisarius (11)
Marius (9)
Trajan (8)
Lucullus (5)
Pompey (4)
Septimius Severus (4)
Aetius (4)
Narses (4)
Heraclius (4)
Marcellus (3)
Agrippa (3)
Stilicho (3)
Paullus Macedonicus (2)
Labienus (2)
Antony (2)
Tiberius (2)
Basil II (2)
Camillus (1)
Duilius (1)
Fabius Maximus (1)
Flamininus (1)
Germanicus (1)
Maximinus Thrax (1)
Odainath (1)
Claudius Gothicus (1)
Galerius (1)
Ricimer (1)
Theodoric the Great (1)
Constantine V (1)
John Tzimiskes (1)
George Maniakes (1)

The collective top 20 (actually 22):
1. Julius Caesar
2. Scipio Africanus
3. Sulla
4. Aurelian
4. Constantine I
4. Belisarius
7. Marius
8. Trajan
9. Lucullus
10. Pompey
10. Septimius Severus
10. Aetius
10. Narses
10. Heraclius
15. Marcellus
15. Agrippa
15. Stilicho
18. Paullus Macedonicus
18. Labienus
18. Antony
18. Tiberius
18. Basil II
An updated version of the period-specific list:

Early Republic (1)

Middle Republic (22)
Fabius Maximus
Marcellus 3
Scipio Africanus 14
Paullus Macedonicus 2

Late Republic (47)
Marius 9
Sulla 12
Pompey 4
Lucullus 5
Caesar 15
Labienus 2

Early Empire (8)
Antony 2
Agrippa 3
Tiberius 2

High Empire (12)
Trajan 8
Septimius Severus 4

Late Empire (26)
Maximinus Thrax
Claudius Gothicus
Aurelian 11
Constantine I 11

Early Byzantium (28)
Stilicho 3
Aetius 4
Theodoric the Great
Belisarius 11
Narses 4
Heraclius 4

Middle Byzantium (5)
Constantine V
John Tzimiskes
Basil II 2
George Maniakes

Lord Oda Nobunaga

Ad Honorem
Jan 2015
Ontario, Canada
How did Monaeses do against Antony? I know only a little about his Parthian campaign.
Notice how it is implied that Monaeses was already a man of some renown. When he went back to Parthia, he told Phraates IV of Antony's plans which sort of ruined Antony's campaign. Although one also assumes that Antony changed his route of advance from Mesopotamia to Media Atropatene. Since it appears that the Parthians struggled in deploying their troops in Media Atropatene. Antony had actually marched from Antioch to Zeugma, and it must have seemed that from Zeugma he would undoubtedly cross the Euphrates and head towards Ctesiphon.

From what is recorded Antony crossed through the mountains into Media Atropatene. It is debated whether he actually went through Armenia or if he cut directly across, underneath Lake Van. But it seems that this caught the Parthians off guard, probably expecting an invasion through Mesopotamia against Ctesiphon. Monaeses went ahead to Media Atropatene with a contingent while Phraates IV organized the rest of the forces. Antony had two columns; his main force advanced towards the city of Phraaspa, while his other column included some legionaries with Artavasdes II and his Armenian contingent, also guarding the siege engines. When the Parthians attacked, Artavasdes II and his cavalry fled, the Romans were encircled and surrendered and the siege engines were destroyed. This was a heavy blow to Antony's campaign because now he lacked the Armenian auxiliaries which could have been used to fight the Parthians, but also the loss of his siege engines which he planned on using to reduce Phraaspa, the loss of a legion or two was unfortunate as well (supposedly 10,000 Romans). Antony continued into Atropatene and began a siege of Phraaspa, deciding to build dual walls as Caesar had done at Alesia. It seems that at about this point the main force showed up under Phraates IV. But this resulted in the Parthians cutting Antony's lines and running low on supplies, Antony had to carry out sortees and foraging missions. At some point the garrison in Phraaspa sallied out and burned the siege engines which Antony was building. It appears that Antony won the engagements around Phraaspa but was running out of supplies and so he decided to carry out a fighting retreat into Armenia, or else face the winter in Media Atropatene. Then the next year he invaded Armenia to punish Artavasdes II for deserting, and rapidly conquering it he incorporated Armenia into his territories. Then when Antony returned to Alexandria he staged a triumph and had the Armenian prisoners paraded through the streets, possibly Artavasdes II and his sons being executed as well. He then carried out the Donations of Alexandria in which he named his son Alexander Helios as the King of Armenia and Parthia. For some reason Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene decided to side with Antony and was sent, I believe one legion in exchange for some of his cavalry. Later during and after Actium, the Parthians invaded Media Atropatene and Armenia.

Much of the war was an attrition conflict in which the Romans besieged Phraaspa and the Parthians waited them out and carried out raids. There were minor engagements around Phraaspa which Antony won (for instance one battle in which the Legionaries charged the Parthian cavalry). Because of the mountains and winter, and cut off supply lines, with Phraaspa showing no signs of giving in, Antony opted to withdraw across the mountains into the Armenia region, making a fighting retreat against Parthian attacks. Supposedly Antony invaded with 100,000 men but that is doubtful since he never received the 20,000 Legionaries from Octavian. Also included were about 12,000 Armenians, over 20,000 auxilia from the Caucasus tribes, 10,000 cavalry from Gaul and Hispania and 60,000 Legionaries. Allegedly Antony lost over 30,000 men (24,000 during the retreat alone, 10,000 when Artavasdes II withdrew, and further troops during the siege and engagements). Certainly the parallel to Napoleon in Russia or Alexander in India is an apt comparison. Still I must say, that I don't believe these figures given for Antony's forces. The losses might be accurate.
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