West Tibetan kingdoms


Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
United States
Not much information seems to be available about the Tibetic-speaking kingdoms of western Tibet (including those in modern-day Pakistan and India) so I put together a list.

Major powers
Baltistan (Sbal ti Yul)
Guge (Gu ge)
Ladakh (La dwags)

Minor kingdoms and groups
Purik (Pu rig)
Changpa nomads (Byang pa)
Lahul (Gar zha)
Nubra (Ldum ra)
Mustang (Smon thang/Smos thang)
Purang (Spu-hrang/Spu hrangs/Spu-hreng)
Rutog (Ru thog)
Spiti (Spyi ti)
Zanskar (Zangs dkar)

Baltistan began to arise as a power in the early 1500s under the Maqpon (Dmag dpon) dynasty which lasted as a fully independent empire into the mid 1600s after which it was a tributary of Indic empires until 1842 when the Sikh empire conquered it.

Guge had two dynasties, one based in Tholing (Mtho lding) from around the middle of the tenth century to the middle of the thirteenth. The second dynasty was based in Tsaparang (Rtsa pa Rang) from around the late fourteenth century to 1630, when Guge was conquered by Ladakh. It was later taken from Ladakh by the Dalai Lamas in the 1680s.

Ladakh also had two dynasties, the first being of the same origin as the first Guge dynasty and lasted from around the middle of the tenth century to circa 1460 after which they were usurped by one of their vassals who founded the Namgyal (Rnam rgyal) dynasty which became a tributary of the Balti empire until its conquest by the Sikh empire in 1834.
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Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
United States
After a lot of research I was able to make this rough map of the different polities and groups. Since it's so mountainous most of the kingdoms were restricted to narrow valleys. I didn't fill in the territories of Guge, Purang, and Mustang because those regions are more open and I'm not sure where they extended to.

West Tibetan kingdoms.png