What Happened In Africa?

#42
Africa would be much worse without the "white man".
That's nonsense.





Anyway here is postive things happening in modern africa .


Subject: Industrial Revolution going on in Africa.


Quote:



Some people don't know that their is a begin of an Industrial Revolution going on in Africa. A lot of countries are starting to build their industry.
For example in Nigeria they now manufacture their own car parts, part of motors and in 5 years they will build for 100% their own motors.
A lot of western products are been copied. The same what happend 20 years ago in China before their Industrial Revolution is now happening in Nigeria.

Quote:
Western scientists confirm the beginning of an industrial revolution in Nigeria. For example in the city Nnewi, 300 kilometres at south of the capital Abuja, their are more then thirty industrial companies who are making car components. On average each company has a small hundred employees in service.






Quote:
Industrial revolution: African tigers


Les Celliers de Meknes is one of the many industrial companies in Morocco. The firma is owned by Brahim Zniber, who produces especially foods: soft drink, cattle fodder, vegetable oil, textile. Also car components ' The industrial revolution in Morocco stands in the start block-systems

The industrial revolution in Morocco is beginning to start' , according to Bouchaara . ' Except local companies also the foreign investments are growing . Renault builds in Tanger one of the largest car factories in the world. Within ten years our economy is at the level of Spain.' The infrastructure has improved enormously. We have recently a fantastic new motorway from Tanger to Marrakesh. ' Morocco is not the only country in Africa where the industry is starting to begin. Except in a number of other countries in North Africa industrial companies are also strong in rise in particularly Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Sudan, Mozambique and South Africa. In Nigeria much industrial companies rice slowly from a deep valley. Because of the enormous income from the oil-export other sectors were neglected for decades. The current government tries to change this . Johnny Ekewuba, marketing manager of the Nigerian Ibeto Group. Its company, that especially manufacters car components . ' We grow 5% a year. The products of the Ibeto Group still remain cheap. A set of their brake block-systems costs 300 naira or less than two euro, what ten times are cheaper than in the Netherlands. The beto Group even already started to exports components to the foreign countries. In neighbouring countries Cameroon and Niger Nigerian car absorbers, oil filters and brake block-systems from Nigeria are evrywhere . ' Also we export to India and Great-Britain.'


African economies grew the previous time more strongly than economies in Europe. Except with the industry also companies in the agrarian, financial sector and communication . The coming years the economies are expected further to increase.



Of lot of influential improvements have taken place the previous years in Africa, like the extension of mobile network . In a large number African countries the network were build by the Sudanese businessman Mo Ibrahim, director of Celtel. ' Western investors claimed that it was risky to invest in Africa ' , says Ibrahim : ' I found that fear exaggerated and decided to show that they were wrong.' Good telecommunication is very important for companies. Cable phones in Africa have always had problems ' , thus Ibrahim. ' A connection was expensive, there were technical problems'. Current mobile network is, however, more reliable.' Also Internet has come thanks the mobile network for much more Africans available. Cell Celtel was a huge success., in 2006, he sold his company to an investor in Kuwait, and the the name was changed in Zain. Ibrahim got 3.5 billion dollar,and is now one of the richest Africans in the world. Ibrahim is now seeking to invest in other things ' The foodstuff industry in Africa has huge potential'













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#44
In fact south africa is doing well so i disagree with one of those comments above.poverty for blacks have gone.it's about 30%,most blacks in south africa are not poor anymore.
overall poverty in south africa is about 20%.

























Subject: The Black Middle Class: fact or fiction? in south africa














Key findings: P0302 - Mid-year population estimates, 2007
The mid-2007 population is estimated at approximately 47,9 million. (The census figure for October 2001 was 44,8 million.) Africans are in
the majority (nearly 38,1 million) and constitute 80 percent of the total South African population.

Fifty-one per cent (approximately 24, 3 million) of the population is female.
The provincial estimates show that KwaZulu-Natal has the largest share of the population (approximately 21%), followed by Gauteng (20%).


Black S. Africans Benefit From Economy

Thursday September 27, 6:15 am ET

By Celean Jacobson, Associated Press Writer
Business in Soweto Booms As Black South Africans Reap the Benefits of Growing Economy /


"The Black Middle Class is a mirage,” a caller emphatically announced as I tuned into a radio talk show recently.
What was being discussed was BusinessMap’s recent research report BEE 2007 - Empowerment and its
Critics. The report analyses the number of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) equity deals that have taken



The Black Middle Class: fact or fiction?
Friday, 11 May 2007

"The Black Middle Class is a mirage,” a caller emphatically announced as I tuned into a radio talk show recently. What was being discussed was BusinessMap’s recent research report BEE 2007 - Empowerment and its Critics. The report analyses the number of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) equity deals that have taken place over the past year. However the interview didn't really focus on this aspect, but rather around whether a significant Black Middle Class was emerging in South Africa.

As many callers phoned in to say it was a mirage, as phoned in to say it was a reality.

Clearly it would be inappropriate to use as the measure the number of BEE deals brokered, but are there other measures that give real evidence of this emerging group of people?

Let's begin by agreeing that the middle-class is generally accepted as Living Standards Measures (LSM’s) 7, 8 & 9, families that earn between R6,880 and R12,647 per month. LSM’s are researched annually by the South African Advertising Research Foundation and range from Level 1 to Level 10 with Level 1 and 2 being extreme poverty, Level 3 being poor, Level 4,5 & 6 being lower income, Level 7, 8 & 9 being middle income and Level 10 being upper income.

The chart below was produced by the South African Advertising Research Foundation and illustrates how the demographics of families residing at each level have changed between 1994 and 2006.

SA Good News"The rich have become richer and the poor, poorer,” another caller announced as I listened further on the radio talk show. But the table above tells a different story. Yes, the richer have become richer, but the poor have not become poorer. On the contrary, it is estimated that some 500,000 families have moved out of LSM’s 1, 2 & 3 in to LSM’s 4, 5 & 6 and that some 400,000 families have moved out of LSM’s 4, 5 & 6 into LSM’s 7, 8 & 9. What has happened though is that the rich have become richer faster than the poor have become less poor. This was covered recently in the Sunday Times in a report which stated that South Africa is one of the most upwardly mobile societies in the world!

Is there evidence of this? Absolutely. Car sales in South Africa have gone from 365,000 new units in 2003 to 730,000 new units sold last year (2,000 new cars on our roads each day!). What’s more, eighty percent of the buyers were black. The sale of home appliances is also exploding and our property price improvement tops the global rankings. While there is a reasonable supply of houses in the R2m plus bracket at the top end, and in the R50 000 to R400 000 bracket at the bottom end, there is a chronic shortage of mid-priced houses - further evidence of a growing middle class. Once again, most of these aspirant owners are black. There are an estimated 23 million cell phone users in the country. The tax net has grown from 2.3 million taxpayers in 1994 to nearly 7 million today, and this is expected to grow to 10,5 million by 2010. Do the maths - the numbers indicate a growing middle class!

Need further evidence? Read the article in the FM entitled Soweto rising which tells us that there has been a huge economic turnaround in Soweto, most evident in the dramatic growth in retail space. Shopping malls are popping up everywhere, with more planned. Until about five years ago, infrastructural development and private investment was considered too risky. This perception changed when studies showed that the living standards of many blacks were moving up to the “middle class level”. Various malls around Soweto are now providing shopping and entertainment previously only available in the leafy suburbs.

Our economy is now growing at around 5%, whereas our population is predicted to stabilise at between 45m and 48m people over the next 20 years. (Our population is growing at less than 1% per annum, not because of HIV/Aids - although that has an influence - but mostly because of rapid urbanisation and improved education opportunities). Our economy is growing five times faster than our population and it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to work out what the implications are. Most economists feel that our economic prospects will remain good for the next 20 years!

Clearly we still have a massive problem in respect of poverty in South Africa with at least 20% of our population languishing in LSM levels 1,2 & 3, but 10 years ago that number was approximately 40%. I have written much about poverty previously and I certainly do not underestimate the challenge that this presents. Having said that, the fact that the government spends R80bn a year on social grants, benefiting approximately 11 million adults and children “at the bottom of the pile” (surprisingly this is not taking into account when poverty levels are measured) must be factored into the "poverty debate", and “measure” for that matter.

Is a middle-class important in our fledgling democracy? Well, what is happening in South Africa, unlike many other African countries is that economic opportunity, as opposed to political connectedness, is increasingly being realised as an opportunity for prosperity. It is often said that in developing countries, politics drives economics, whereas in developed countries, the opposite holds true. Obviously, the greater the size of the middle-class, the more this pendulum will shift in favour of the latter.

It goes without saying that middle-class people have a lifestyle they wish to protect against the uncertainties of boom/ bust economic practice, rampant inflation and deteriorating currency valuation. Hopefully they will use their vote to ensure this.

The middle-class has a vested interest in the future, the future of their children, of schooling, of health institutions, of infrastructure, of political stability and of economic well-being. This creates upward pressure on delivery; better shops, higher quality entertainment, working infrastructure, good schools, safe amenities, and professional healthcare.

THIS IS WHERE JOBS FOR THE “LOST GENERATION” ARE CREATED.

The South African economy is increasingly becoming service oriented, only 12% of GDP is contributed to by the mining sector, and 20% of GDP by manufacturing. A substantial 68% of GDP is therefore contributed to by the services sector.

What kind of people are employed there? Skilled professionals.

What group of people is unemployed in South Africa? Largely unskilled people with a poor education, the "lost generation" as they are often referred to. How will they be employed? By middle-class people who have a requirement for the services they can offer as waiters, shop assistants, domestic helpers, gardeners, cleaners, security guards etc. (These may be considered to be ordinary jobs, but they do represent the first rung on the ladder out of the poverty trap and they do give the incumbents a real chance to give their children a chance. For more on this, read Jeffrey Sachs’ book The End of Poverty.)

It is often said that for every skilled person entering the economy between four and six unskilled jobs are created. That is why the growth of a middle-class is so important.

Various estimates indicate that our economy currently has a million jobs unfilled. (Wake up Home Affairs, go away those naysayers who argue that whites can't get jobs!). Imagine if these jobs could be filled in the next five years. Imagine how that would dent unemployment!

Is there a growing middle-class? Absolutely.

Is it the solution to poverty and unemployment? Only partially.

Is it good for our country? Fundamentally.

Will it continue to grow? Sure, provided we can produce the skills and maintain economic growth levels and between

between 4% and 6%.



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Fast Facts & Quick Stats About SA


South Africa 2014: The Story of our Future
South Africa 2014

South Africa: The Good News is South Africa's premier good news portal.


SA's big spenders drive economic growth

Wednesday, 07 November 2007
Over the past seven years South Africa’s black population has steadily risen in high income earning brackets
and has also become South Africa’s biggest spenders, aMarket Research (BMR).according to the University of South Africa’s Bureau of
The BMR’s integrated model of the South African population, labour market and income and expenditure
revealed that the white population still remains the wealthiest in the country. But the survey also shows some
parity between black and white income earners particularly in the R100K - R300K bracket. Blacks account for
1.4 million of this group and whites, 1.3 million. Project Leader Professor Carl van Aardt highlights this as an
indication of dramatic economic growth in the black population.
The report also shows that the black population leads the pack in household expenditure, spending R550

billion this year, followed by whites whose expenditure amounted to R506 billion
Van Aardt believes that the BMR’s investigation into income and expenditure is a more realistic assessment of
the affluence of South African consumers, the sophistication of the markets and a more comprehensive
estimate of the actual size of the country’s GDP and thus allowing for more accurate future projections.
We can expect South Africa’s current growth rate at 4.5% to sustain itself over the medium term due to the fact
for more accurate future projections.


“We can expect South Africa’s current growth rate at 4.5% to sustain itself over the medium term due to the fact
South Africa is a consumption driven economy and black consumers will keep growing,” says van Aardt.
Medium to long term growth will be driven by government capital expenditure as we progress towards the 2010
World Cup, explains van Aardt.
Van Aardt confidently states that South Africa is not headed in the direction of Zimbabwe. “The Zimbabwean
economy is dependant on basic commodities, agriculture and mining while the South African economy is very
diversified. Even if one sector took a knock there would be other factors in place to hold our economy together.”
Though we face positive prospects, van Aardt warns that some of South Africa’s biggest problems could
threaten economic growth. Both foreign portfolio and direct investment are vulnerable to crime. A loss in these

foreign investments could see South Africa experience a big “economic hiccup”.
The Human Sciences Research Council’s HIV Prevalence Report (2002 and 2005) showed that infections are
on the rise amongst the affluent and skilled. This is a major threat to the economy.

Though the number of historically disadvantaged South Africans moving into higher earning brackets is on the
increase, “the number of people in poverty has stagnated. We have people trapped in poverty,” says Van Aardt.
He attributes this to the skills shortage in South Africa and the mismatch between skills available and skills
required.

SA among world’s freer economies

Wednesday, 05 March 2008
Economic freedom in South Africa is considered to be higher than that of the world average, according to

Heritage Foundation’s 2008 Index of Economic Freedom.
With a score of 63.2%, South Africa’s levels of economic freedom are above the world average of 60.3%. South
Africa earned a global ranking of 57, making it the fourth freest economy of the 40 African countries that were
surveyed. The Africa rankings were topped by Mauritius (18), Botswana (36) and Uganda (52).
South Africa ranked higher than emerging market competitors Brazil (101), India (115), China (126) and Russia
134).


Blacks flourishing
SOWETO, South Africa - Black South Africans are reaping the benefits of a growing economy,
and at the heart of it is Soweto, where Nelson Mandela presided over the gala opening of a
multimillion-dollar mall yesterday. The sprawling township that was the center of the anti-apartheid
struggle is being transformed, with new houses, new parks and paved roads. [/QB][/QUOTE]




note-south african population will grow further then 48 or 49 million.now it's about 50 or 51 million.info about population growth rate,current poverty rate etc below.open links to get upadte info for 2011.



















read the statistics folks and stop talking about outdate or incorrect info.south africa has a embassy and they have phone numbers and email.contact themselves to know what is really going on instead of playing guessing games all the time.

you could see links below has well.




Statistics South Africa - Home


Home*-*South Africa - The Good News
 
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#45









read all comments after as well.

Nigeria Launches worlds most advanced Satellites into Orbit.

Nigeria launched NigeriaSat-2 and NigeriaSat-X into orbit Wednesday morning from a Russian launch pad in the town of Yasny, President Goodluck Jonathan said on state-run television.



According to Mr.Jonathan "This is another milestone in our nation's effort to solve national problems through space technology."

Nigeria Sat-X, which was built by Nigerian engineers trained at the same time the Sat-2 was being built as a demonstration that Nigeria can build and launch its satellite was launched alongside NigeriaSat-2.

With the launch of the two satellites, NigeriaSa-1, which has since overstayed its life span in orbit would be replaced.

Speaking to journalists in Abuja shortly after showing the live coverage of the launch site, in Russia to the audience, the project manager of the NigeriaSat-2 and X, Mr. Francis Chizea, said that NigeriaSat-2 and X, have five years life span, just like NigeriaSat-1, and "will continue the work which NigeriaSat-1 is doing, but is more advanced in technology."

Explaining further, Mr. Chizea, noted that the satellite was designed for five years, just like NigeriaSat-1. "It is still in the orbit functioning and providing images as it used to be. They are two different satellites on their own; Nigeria Sat-2 is a higher resolution satellite, carrying 2.5m resolution camera on board.

"It also has 32m camera on board, because we expect that very soon, Nigeria Sat-1 will expire, and stop working. So to ensure that there is data continuity, we also have that 32m camera in Nigeria sat-2. It is a more advanced space craft. Whatever Nigeria sat-2 is doing in the orbit now is to carry out earth resolution that Nigeriasat-1 has been carrying out for the past 8 years, but with 32m camera, it has better grand meter set, which we never had before. Now, we can have our own high earth resolution data from our grand station whenever we want it."

Nigeria Launches 2 Satellites Into Orbit

On the economic implication of the satellite, he said, it is not just launching of the satellite that matters but to improve the socio-economic life of Nigerians, adding that data from Nigeria-sat-2 will be used for various applications "in agriculture, urban mapping, environmental monitoring, etc. nigeriasat-2 is one of the most advanced satellites of its kind that is in the orbit today."

Explaining why the satellite is the most advanced of its kind in the world, Chizea pointed out that the Nigeriasat-2 unlike any other satellite can image lots of images, "for example, it can image a still image, under a very low skill which was not possible in Nigeriasat-1. Nigeriasat-2 is very agile, you can image and offload at the same time to the grand station, this is the facility that is not available in satellites of its kind. It can carry out images from security, pipeline monitoring to coastal monitoring, depending on what we have on ground."
Last edited by Naija Attitude; Yesterday at 06:43 AM. Reason: Typographical error.

Yeah.. With South African technology and her defacto capability to build Launch Pads African countries could build and launch satellites into orbit on African soil , not paying $70 million USD per launch. Nigeria has showed the world that Africans can indeed build satellites by itself.
Nigerians have been learning the trade.

And we will be launching our own satellite ourselves in 4 years time.
Nigeria's satellites

1) NigeriaSat-1 (Disaster Monitoring Constellation System)
2) NigeriaSat-2 (High Resolution earth monitoring satellite (Mapping) Launched 17 August 2011
3) NigComSat-1 (Africa's first communications satellite)
4) NigComSat-1R (Communications Satellite) Launch December 2011
5) Nigerian Pico Satellite (Monitoring and Disaster Management) Launch 2015

6) NigeriaSat-X (Earth monitoring satellite (Disaster Relief) Launched 17 August 2011

In Use, No longer in Use, Yet to launch
The sources I read said a satellite will be launched in Nigeria in 2015
That tag simply means it is in the league of the most advanced satellites, It is stated in another article.



Nigeria has already taken steps in place, our engineers are fast becoming some of the best in the world in this field and I think our space development is developing quite rapidly and impressively. By 2015/2017 there will be some impressive developments coming out of Nigeria.

http://www.satnews.com/cgi-bin/story.cgi?number=1095219858"]Here is the article on the Nigerian Pico Satellite which could possibly the first satellite manufactured and launched in Nigeria.[/URL]

Nigeria... Pico Placement Planned (Satellite) : Satnews Publishers
The engineers dubbed it one of the world's most advanced satellites based on its specifications.


here is why sources all over the world have went with the tag "one of the world's most advanced satellites".

Now if someone like A darter that has a background in engineering can come out with a reason why the engineers should be faulted then fine.

EARTH OBSERVATION
SSTL successfully launches two further Earth observation satellites
by Staff Writers
Guildford UK (SPX) Aug 18, 2011

Quote:
SSTL's NigeriaSat-2 and NigeriaSat-X satellites were successfully launched Wednesday at 07:12:20 UTC onboard a Dnepr rocket from Yasny in southern Russia. The highly advanced Earth observation satellites will significantly boost African capabilities for natural resource management, as well as aid disaster relief through the Disaster Monitoring Constellation.

Following confirmation of separation from the launch vehicle, ground stations in Abuja and Guildford established contact with NigeriaSat-2 and NigeriaSat-X respectively and commissioning of the satellites in their 700 km sun-synchronous orbit is now progressing.

The two satellites, built under contract with the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), will provide Nigeria with the ability to enhance food security through monthly crop monitoring, assist with burgeoning urban planning demands and, through the development of engineering skills, will advance the growth of new technologies in Nigeria.

Science Minister David Willetts said: "The completion of this significant engineering project is testament to the success of the rapidly growing UK space industry. Not only are we producing technology and services that are in global demand but we are also helping more countries use satellite imagery to tackle important issues, including urban development and disaster relief."

NigeriaSat-2, one of the most advanced Earth observation small satellites launched, will provide high-resolution (2.5-metres) images whilst, under a 3-year training and development programme, 26 Nigerian engineers have worked alongside SSTL engineers in Guildford, assembling the accompanying 100kg NigeriaSat-X. After completion of the commissioning phase, NASRDA engineers will control both satellites from their ground station in Abuja.

SSTL's Executive Chairman, Sir Martin Sweeting, commented: "We congratulate the Nigerian Government on the advancement of their Earth Observation capability. SSTL's training programmes give testimony to space being a truly international endeavour. Continuing to change the economics of space, SSTL prides itself in providing highly capable and affordable spacecraft for our customers' operational needs."

NASRDA head, Dr S.O Mohammed, said: "This is a great day for the Nigerian space industry and builds on the success of NigeriaSat-1, launched in 2003. NigeriaSat-2 will significantly boost African capabilities for remote sensing applications, specifically for natural resource management. This high resolution satellite will also greatly enhance image data available to the Disaster Monitoring Constellation. Through a comprehensive training programme, Nigerian engineers have worked on the design and build of NigeriaSat-X, benefiting Nigeria's growing space industry and inspiring development of new technologies."

http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/SS...lites_999.html

Quote:
The mission launching from Yasny, in Southern Russia, will give Nigeria the ability to pinpoint individual buildings for urban planning in its sprawling cities, and to monitor crops more precisely.

Based on the SSTL 300 smallsat platform, the satellite is designed to deliver 2.5-meter panchromatic and 5-meter multispectral resolution, with a 20-km (12-mi.) swath. It will be able to roll 45 deg. off center to provide stereo imaging and faster response.

Nigeria’s National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) plans to use it in conjunction with NigeriaSat-1, another SSTL product, to map the country every four months. The newer spacecraft has 20 times the data-delivery capacity of its predecessor, and Nigeria’s space agency plans to make it available commercially as well as to use it for national needs.

The information also will be supplied to the Data Monitoring Constellation (DMC), which will use it along with other small Earth-observing satellites to provide global daily monitoring coordinated by DMC International Imaging Ltd.

Launching with NigeriaSat-2 will be NigeriaSat-X, built by a group of 26 Nigerian engineers in an SSTL training program at the company’s facilities in Guildford, England. The spacecraft will supplement NigeriaSat-2 data with 22-meter resolution across a 600-km swath.

http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/gener...ch%20Aug.%2017

If you have specifications then post it.

This is Right from the Manufacturers Website, they are the world's leading small satellite company

Highly advanced NigeriaSat-2 small satellite launch date announced

SSTL has today announced that it will launch the NigeriaSat-2 and NigeriaSat-X satellites on behalf of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) by a Dnepr launch vehicle from Yasny, Russia on 29th October 2010.

NigeriaSat-2 is the most advanced small satellite ever to be launched, defining new standards in Earth observation and avionics. The spacecraft, which is based upon SSTL’s flagship SSTL-300i platform, will be used primarily for resource management and mapping of the Nigerian territory.

Its mission objectives include providing high resolution maps of Nigeria every four months, monthly monitoring of Nigerian crops for food supply security, and supporting the development of the Nigerian national Geographical Information System (GIS) by providing high quality geospatial data.

The NigeriaSat-2 spacecraft utilises one of the most capable platforms in its class, which when combined with its two SSTL-built optical payloads provides highly capable and flexible multi-mode operation for spot imaging, strip imaging, area mode imaging and stereo mode imaging.

High resolution images are provided by SSTL’s Very High Resolution Imager (VHRI). This sophisticated multispectral imaging payload was developed from the highly successful imager onboard Beijing-1. It provides 2.5m ground sample distance (GSD) panchromatic imagery and 5.0m GSD 4-band multi-spectral imagery at 20km swath widths. The satellite’s wide area mapping capability comes from a 32m GSD 4 band Disaster Monitoring Constellation imager that has a very large 300km swath width and can capture up to 400 scenes per day.

The small satellite’s imaging capability is further enhanced by the SSTL-300i satellite platform’s avionics, allowing 45° roll/pitch off-pointing for high resolution spot imaging and also stereo mode imaging. Stereo mode imaging is an exciting new development that makes it possible to build digital terrain maps which include, for example, heights of buildings, hills and mountains - useful in the planning of wireless communications.

NigeriaSat-2 also features dual 105Mbps downlinks, which can also be operated as a 210 Mbps data connection for fast transfer of large images to either the SSTL or Nigerian groundstation. The new satellite can be controlled both directly from Nigeria and also from SSTL’s groundstation to provide rapid imaging, with a typical 3-day turnaround from satellite tasking to GIS-ready images.

The NigeriaSat-2 programme includes ground segment equipment and advanced training, and follows on from the successful NigeriaSat-1 programme to provide data continuity for end users.


NigeriaSat-X will be launched into the Disaster Monitoring Constellation, where it will assist with disaster relief and global environmental monitoring campaigns alongside satellites from other consortium members ASAL (Algeria), BLMIT (China), Deimos Space (Spain), and SSTL (UK).

Follow the launch progress on SSTL’s Space Blog: Space blog - Entries tagged as nigeriasat-2

News & Events | Satellites & Space Missions | Surrey Satellite Technology (SST-US)
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Last edited by Tbite; Yesterday at 11:40 AM.

A Darter is right. Its not the most advanced in the world but it does fall into the league.Authorities said NigeriaSat-2 can detect anything wider than 8.2 feet (2.5 meters), such as cars. That means the satellites also could be used for military and intelligence purposes. Thats pretty impressive if you ask me for a country whose space programme is less than 10 years old. In 2015 Nigeria is set to independently launch its own satellites, weather this is achievable is up for debates, personally i dont see this happening.

The satellite launch also spotlights Nigeria as a main African player in space technology development, rivaling countries such as South Africa and Algeria, which also have space programs. Despite the strides Nigeria's space technology industry has made in recent years, it remains largely dependent on other nations launch platforms.
NigeriaSat-X was built by a team of Nigerian engineers and scientists at Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. in the United Kingdom, while NigeriaSat-2 was built entirely by Nigerian engineers and tecchnicians.

Nigerian officials hope this launch goes better than the country's last. In May 2007, Nigeria launched its first communication satellite, built by a Chinese team and launched from a Chinese pad. NIGCOMSAT-1 was expected to provide phone, broadband Internet and broadcasting services in Africa's most populous country, but it was lost in space just over a year later. Authorities said a replacement satellite will be launched before the end of the year.

I believe South Africa has space launch or can have space launch capabilities anytime soon. Should these happen African countries can use Launch pads in SA at a much cheaper rate. I once told people on here that Nigeria and by and large Africans are smarter than the Chinese. If conditions are right Africans can really be a global player in the tech field, we don't resolve to clandestine covert espionage activities like the Chinese to show the world we can do stuffs.

Africa to the world media is portrayed as hungry, backward and impoverished people with little intelligence, news like this will never make it tot he Western Media.
I have posted the overwhelming evidence so there is nothing further to discuss.

Also nobody said it was the most advanced satellite...it is a grammatical error and it is being misconstrued.

The Manufacturers however who are the world's leaders in the field have stated it is the most advanced small satellite ever launched so that really substantiates the posts that I have been making.


I guess you guys learn something new everyday, just take it on the chin.

Moderator change the title to "Nigeria Launches one of the worlds most advanced Satellites into orbit" or "Nigeria Launches the worlds most advanced small Satellite into orbit"
Well people on here refuse to acknowledge the fact that something good technologically can come out of a %100 black country. We all agree that Algeria, Egypt, South Africa can make pretty advanced stuffs but not an overwhelmingly black Nigeria... perfect logic.
^i noticed that too. Ppl on here have more peace of mind giving those countries credit then nigeria

but is issue is calling it the WORLDS MOST. thats where the thread starter went wrong though Tbite has shown how it was most likely an error, but i still think if it was called One of the worlds most, which it is, there would still be a negative blacklash


either way just post this is the nigeria section, idk why you people waste your time arguing on the oasis
LMAO. Yeah, I think it's a bit of a stretch, to say the least, to claim that Nigerian satellites are the world's most advanced (even more than the US' satellites??? Please!).

ohh pleeaaze dont say that... just because Ethopia does not even have research institute much less a space programme does not mean Africa or Nigeria cannot boast of satelites in the league of those of the West.

Nigeria is one of the fewws countries in sub-saharan Africa where modern astronomy is taught at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The astronomical community has been involved in main stream research activities in modern astronomy and astrophysics. Between 1980 – 2007 Astronomers in Nigeria have made significant progress in the area of theoretical High Energy Astronomy. In observational astronomy, there are astronomers who have been trained in astronomical observations at different observatories including Hartebesthoek Radio Observatory (HartRAO) South Africa, National Astronomical Observatory Japan (NAOJ) among others.

It is important to note that the Nigerian Space policy statement emphasizes that Nigeria wills vigorouly pursue the attainment of space capabilities as an essential tool for its socio-economic development and enhancement of the quality of life for its people. The National Space Research and Development Agency, (NASRDA) was created just a couple of years ago.the Agency responsible for the actualization of this lofty idea hopes to achieve this through research, rigorous education, engineering development, design and manufacture of appropriate hardware and software in space technology and antennas for scientific research and applications. And it is for these reasons that CBSS, an activity centre of the (NASRDA) has embarked on this ambitious project of setting up a 25m Radio Telescope in Nigeria for frontline space research. as well as the bringing to fruition Nigeria's ambition to independently launch payloads into orbit this decade.


The above PDF documents states the steps that Nigeria is taking and needs to take to be able to effectively launch satellites from within Nigeria.


____________________________________________________________
 
#46
Satellites for South Africa


South Africa plans to launch satellites within the next 15 years in an effort to break into the global satellite launching market and lower the cost of launching its own satellites. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) has announced that workshops will be held to create a firm launch plan.

Consultative workshops with relevant stakeholders on the launch plan will take place later this month, with one workshop being held tomorrow and Thursday. The meeting will be held in Bredasdorp, site of the Overberg Test Range where launches might take place, according to Val Munsami, Deputy Director-General of Research, Development and Innovation at the DST.

South Africa will mainly focus on low orbiting satellites weighing in the region of 200 to 400 kg, Munsami said. The market segment for launching 200 to 1000 kg satellite is a fairly small market but generates revenues of around US$100 million a year with around 14 satellite launches, according to local firm Marcom Aeronautics & Space. On the other hand, 1000 kg to 5000 kg satellite launches generate around US$800 million a year.

Having a domestic satellite launching capability is an important step, because of a series of satellites SA is planning to launch in the next 10 to 15 years. The DST said last month that a constellation of satellites similar to SumbandilaSat is being planned, in order to increase the availability of satellite data for a variety of applications, notably resource management and disaster monitoring. South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria will participate in this joint venture and will eventually share in the data produced by the African Resource Management Constellation, according to Munsami. In addition, South Africa hopes to build a space weather satellite with Brazil to monitor radiation over the southern Antarctic.

“This [launch capability] could also place SA in good standing to be viewed as an alternative for countries who wish to launch their satellites,” says Munsami. “Africa is slowly waking up to the importance of satellites,” he told defenceWeb. Indeed, Marcom says that states such as Kenya, Nigeria, Morocco, Algeria and Egypt have formed official space agencies to manage their own space affairs and begin reducing their dependence on foreign satellite services. Africa currently relies almost exclusively on European and American satellites to provide television, communications and navigation services. Satellites over Africa are also used for agricultural management, mineral exploitation, urban planning and wildlife management.

In April 2010 the trade publication Satellite Markets & Research said that Africa was one of the fastest growing markets for telecommunications and satellite services and is growing at nearly twice the global average of 6-7%. This growth is set to continue well into the next decade, spurred by demand for cellular and Internet connectivity as well as government initiatives, Satellite Markets reported. An estimated 20 new satellites with coverage on Africa will be launched in the next five years to address the current capacity shortage on the continent.

According to the recently released UK Space Strategy, the overall world market for the space industry is likely to grow from £160 billion in 2008, to at least £400 billion by 2030, with a yearly growth rate of 5%. In September 2010 Space News reported that the global satellite market stands at between 20 and 30 satellite launches a year.

Last month Science and technology minister Naledi Pandor officially opened the South African National Space Agency (Sansa) and associated National Space Strategy. The latter seeks to promote the peaceful use of space, foster research in space science and communications and navigation, and promote international co-operation in space-related activities.

The South African Space Agency hopes to share some of the global satellite launching market and to further this aim will focus on six core areas – space-based earth observation; space operations (satellite mission control; spacecraft telemetry, tracking and control; and launch support); space science; human capital development; science advancement and public engagement and space engineering, which includes design, development and manufacture of satellites. To further the latter area, a Sansa Space Engineering agency would be set up as well as the Satellite Sensor Centre of Competence, which will work on optronics and synthetic aperture radar.

The establishment of the South African Space Agency and the development of an industrial base for space-related infrastructure is part of the government’s Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), which will focus on key areas to boost the country’s financial capacity and which will create up to 2.4 million jobs by 2020.

“The space industry is now big business. It is not simply a matter of space travel. It's also about an industry that has enormous potential future growth,” Pandor said at the launch of Sansa last month.

In February last year Pandor said she was looking into re-establishing space rocket launch facilities in South Africa. They were originally deactivated as part of South Africa’s non-nuclear proliferation policy.

“Around 1988, the South African government initiated a project to develop a low-earth orbit reconnaissance satellite system for the Air Force that resulted in Greensat. This project [which was to use the RSA-3 ballistic missile platform] was abandoned in 1994 and SA lost valuable technological development and skilled people in this area,” Munsami said.

South Africa has previously contemplated a satellite programme and the infrastructure created for that is largely still available, albeit in mothballs, Pandor said. This includes the Institute for Satellite and Software Applications, at Grabouw, near Cape Town. The facility, now in the hands of the Department of Communications (known in the 1980s known as Houwteq) was part of apartheid SA's space programme. This was central to a broader scheme to build ballistic missiles tipped with nuclear weapons. Launch pads and a launch control facility were built in the Overberg and were incorporated into state arsenal Denel’s Overberg Test Range. Other facilities include the Space Weather Centre at the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory and the Satellite Application Centre in Gauteng.

The science minister says that South Africa has existing infrastructure that could be utilised, notably Overberg. Although the launch pad was destroyed as part of South Africa’s nuclear stand-down and the payload processing facility was mothballed, Overberg has retained almost all of its space launch capability, including mission control centre, radar and telemetry tracking facilities and range safety systems, says Mark Comninos, head of Marcom Aeronautics & Space. The only extra modifications needed would be to re-commission the payload processing facility and construct a concrete launch pad.

However, Munsami has said that South Africa also needs sound international partnerships to complement the national skills to expedite the plan, and financial backing for the plan. At the moment partners and funding for the satellite programme are still being negotiated. Sansa is expected to have a budget of between R400 to R500 million in its first financial year.

To put this into perspective, the Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia, with seven launch pads, will cost around $13.5 billion to build, according to RIA Novosti, while a Soyuz launch pad at the European Space Agency’s spaceport in French Guiana costs €200 million. French Guiana is a good place to launch satellites as it is on the equator, meaning that few trajectory changes are needed to put a satellite into orbit. In addition, the rotation of the earth is strongest at the equator and this gives the satellite an added boost. Therefore less propellant is needed. Satellites can be launched from anywhere, but it is cheaper and easier to launch from the equator.

Overberg, on the other hand, is ideally suited to launching satellites intended for polar, sun-synchronous and high inclination orbits, Marcom says, as long as the fly-out direction is over the southern or south-eastern ocean. Having said that, many satellite launch centres are further from the equator than Overberg, which is as far south of the equator as Cape Canaveral is north of the equator. In fact, Baikonur and Japan are further from the equator.

Munsami told defenceWeb that negotiations are taking place with Marcom to develop a prototype test engine to benchmark the technology for a new satellite launch vehicle. Marcom was set up in Johanesburg in 2002 and specialises in conducting research and development of aerospace technologies in support of launch vehicle and spacecraft systems. The company has submitted several proposals to government in this regard and would like to become involved in a government/private sector satellite launch initiative.

The company is currently working on the Cheetah-1 commercial satellite launch vehicle (CSLV), with a payload of up to 1000 kg. Comninos told defenceWeb that South Africa possesses all the technology and skills necessary to launch satellites and that, given the right funding (between R350 million and R750 million), could be in space within five years with a launch vehicle capable of lifting up to 1000 kg to low Earth orbit.

However, South Africa is not the only country looking to expand into the satellite market. In December last year India signed a five year contract with EADS-Astrium for the join manufacture and launch of satellites, according to the Deccan Chronicle. India will launch four new satellites over the next two years and is also working on its own satellite launch vehicles such as the four ton capacity GSLV-Mk III, the Indian Express reports. In addition, China plans to take up a 10% share of the world’s commercial satellite market, and 15% of the commercial launch business by 2015, China Daily reported in October. This year China will conduct three commercial launches for France, Pakistan and Nigeria, and will launch another three satellites next year. Over the last three decades China has conducted 30 commercial launches for 14 countries, and is increasingly looking to developing nations for more contracts, China Daily reported.

South Africa can and does build its own small satellites, starting with SunSat, which was built by Stellenbosch University and launched by NASA in 1999. South Africa’s second satellite SumbandilaSat was built by local specialist company SunSpace at a cost of R26 million, and is owned by the DST. Although its imaging capacity is not has high as other satellites, it has succeeded in its primary stated mission of proving the viability of affordable micro-satellite technology, the DST says.

In February last year Cabinet approved a move by the DST to buy a majority stake of between 55 and 60 percent in the Stellenbosch-based microsatellite manufacturer. Democratic Alliance science and technology spokeswoman Marian Shinn has said the stake could be worth as much as R100 million.

SumbandilaSat was launched from Kazakhstan in September 2009. It was originally scheduled for launch aboard a Russian naval submarine in 2007, but this fell through.

Despite a stabilisation system problem, SumbandilaSat is currently sending back imagery at no cost, whereas an image from a commercial satellite costs R40000, the DST says. “The lesson learned from the Sumbandila project is how vital it is to launch your satellite on schedule. The ability to launch our own satellites gives us self-reliance and independence, and it will allow SA to plan its launch schedules better.”

Satellite launches are expensive – the Times reports that it cost R12 million to launch the 81kg SumbandilaSat – and this is money that could rather be spent in South Africa. The current price for launching a satellite stands at about $20000 per kilogram. According to Marcom, smaller payloads (of up to 100 kg) can cost between $10000 and $30000 per kilogram, depending on payload size and orbit. However, there may be additional costs such as range fees, payload processing fees, insurance, certification and other costs involved. Marcom believes local launch services could be provided at costs below $10000/kg.

“Simply put, without independent access to space, South Africa cannot timely and effectively provide satellite services locally nor to other African countries, nor to other developing nations around the world,” Marcom says.

http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.ph...ogy&Itemid=204


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http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1313727
 
#48
More good or postive news.Africa is on the move.

1/7 Blacks Without Borders - YouTube


and





>
> Subject: the poor in south africa -it seems that 30% of blacks in south
> from good news south africa-
>
> SA Good News"The rich have become richer and the poor,
> poorer,” another caller announced as I listened further on
> the radio talk show. But the table above tells a different
> story. Yes, the richer have become richer, but the poor have
> not become poorer. On the contrary, it is estimated that
> some 500,000 families have moved out of LSM’s 1, 2 & 3
> in to LSM’s 4, 5 & 6 and that some 400,000 families
> have moved out of LSM’s 4, 5 & 6 into LSM’s 7, 8
> & 9. What has happened though is that the rich have
> become richer faster than the poor have become less poor.
> This was covered recently in the Sunday Times in a report
> which stated that South Africa is one of the most upwardly
> mobile societies in the world!
>
> Our economy is now growing at around 5%, whereas our
> population is predicted to stabilise at between 45m and 48m
> people over the next 20 years. (Our population is growing at
> less than 1% per annum, not because of HIV/Aids - although
> that has an influence - but mostly because of rapid
> urbanisation and improved education opportunities). Our
> economy is growing five times faster than our population and
> it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to work out what the
> implications are. Most economists feel that our economic
> prospects will remain good for the next 20 years!
>
> my comments-
>
> correction population will be growing like 5 million every
> 10 years in south africa(that's citizens only)
> so in 20 years off. population will be around 59 million
> more or less.
>
> it seems that the poor is around 20% and the lower income
> group is not put in the poor camp in south africa.so it
> seems lower income in south african terms means lower middle
> income but the western media mostly does not seem to know
> that.
>
> this is how they rate living standards in south africa from
> what i read so far
>
> extreme poor-
> poor
> lower income
> middle class
> upper class
>
> it seems most of south africa is in not in the poor camp
>
> and i think the black poor maybe lowr than 40% if you do
> not count the lower income blacks with the poor and extreme
> poor blacks.
> for that i have to do more research on how many blacks are
> in the
> lower income group compared to extreme poor and poor.i
> might have send the info to you before or looked it up
> myself awhile ago but i have to check again.
>
> anyway-
>
>
> Asian personal income is projected to increase by 5,7 % per
> annum, African income by
> 5,2 %, Coloured income by 4,6 % and White income by 2,7 %
> between 1960 and 2007. The
> slow relative growth of the income of Whites over the whole
> period results in a decreasing
> share of Whites in total personal disposable income in
> South Africa (figure 1). It is expected
> that Africans will command a greater share in personal
> disposable income than Whites in
> 2007 – 46,5 % against 40,4 %, a far cry from 1960 when
> Whites received 69,4 % of total
> personal disposable income and Africans only 23,2 %.
>
>
> On the educational and empowerment front, the research
> found that:
> # In 1980 the top 10% of income earners were almost
> totally white - in 2005 nearly one quarter are black;
> # The upper middle income group has changed from having 12%
> black adults in the mix in 1991, to 45% in
> 2005;# The percentage share of black matriculants has grown
> from 50% in 1996 to 67% in 2005, while the
> percentage of black graduates/diplomas has grown from 31%
> in 1996 to 52% in 2005;
> # The top 10% of income earners is still dominated by men,
> however improvement has occurred since 1996;
>
> it seeems that th black poor is around 30% but overall
> south african poor is around 20% in 2005.
> it will be interesting to see what it is in 2007 and 2008.
>
>
>
> ken

posted 08 November, 2008 12:48 AM
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> Entire afrika.no Index on Africa News Update
>
> Fellesrådet The Index on Africa Africa News
> Update English
> You are here: News Update Home : Archive : 2004 : July
>
>
> South Africa: Poor whites are strangers in a new land
> Lisa has her monthly period, which means she can’t work.
> Her cellphone screen flashes incessantly with the names of
> her regulars, but she only answers her boyfriend’s calls.
> Her boyfriend, Pieter, knows her line of work, but condones
> it because he is unemployed. In the growing poor white
> community, sex is a key source of income.
>
> By Mail and Guardian (South Africa), by Vicki Robinson |
> 07.08.2004
>
> Seventy-five years after the armblank (poor white) crisis
> of the 1930s, the phenomenon is resurfacing. White
> unemployment has nearly doubled since 1995, according to the
> Institute for Security Studies.
>
> Today 430 000 whites, of a total white population of
> 4,5-million, are “too poor to live in traditional white
> areas” and 90 000 “are in a survival struggle”, says
> Lawrence Schlemmer, director of the Helen Suzman Foundation.
> Of these, 305 000 are Afrikaans-speaking and 215 000 speak
> English.
>
> Since 1998 these figures have increased year-on-year by
> 15%. According to a survey by the South African Institute of
> Race Relations, white unemployment increased by 74,4%, using
> the expanded definition, between 1998 and 2002, compared
> with the national average over the same period of 39,8%.
> However, the growth of white unemployment is off a much
> lower population base than black unemployment.
>
> A key goal of the National Party in the heyday of apartheid
> was to uplift poor whites by using the state and semi-state
> sectors to provide them with jobs and housing, reserving
> certain jobs for whites, favouring their trade unions and
> shoring up the farming sector.
>
> But for the first time in the mid-1970s, there were more
> white-collar than blue-collar Afrikaners, and the policies
> of the NP shifted accordingly. Poor whites were increasingly
> abandoned by the state.
>
> The 1994 election and the advent of majority rule has
> accelerated the downward precipitation of whites without
> capital or marketable skills. In desperation, they are
> clinging to what they know: religion, xenophobia and racism.
> Many still believe their skin colour puts them above menial
> labour, and prostitution has become a common way of earning
> a living.
>
> “I do everything except Greek style and blacks,” says
> Lisa, who lives in suburban Vanderbijlpark, a microcosm of
> white economic distress. “I work nine till five because in
> the evenings I like to spend quality time with my kids.”
> She only takes bookings from businessmen and earns up to R15
> 000 a month.
>
> Her office — a cerise room with a double bed, a crimson
> lounge suite, and a table carrying with a bottle of
> Johnson’s baby oil, government condoms and Courtleigh
> cigarettes — is in her backyard next to her swimming pool.
> Her children are aware of her business. They say they accept
> it because it gives them a house of their own and a higher
> standard of living.
>
> Another Vanderbijlpark prostitute, Nikkie, has size 44E
> breasts with a red rose tattooed next to her right nipple,
> making her black string top look like an overstuffed couch.
> Her husband is unemployed, and she has two small children.
>
> Often Nikkie goes away for weekends with groups of farmers
> on hunting trips to Kuruman in the Northern Cape. On these
> occasions she earns R4 500 in addition to her average R2 000
> weekly earnings.
>
> “I only do men over 30 because I shake the **** out of
> anyone younger,” she jokes. “My husband doesn’t mind
> — it actually excites him. Often we have a passionate
> session after a full night’s work. My only three rules are
> whites only, no anal sex and cleanliness — you can’t do
> a client smelling like a three-day-old snoek.”
>
> Lisa and Nikkie both insist survival has forced them into
> the “game”.
>
> Poor whites typically compensate for their low
> socio-economic status with aggressive racism. In an era when
> many black people are upwardly mobile, it serves to bolster
> their self-pride.
>
> Estelle Claasens lives in a former Iscor home, now owned by
> the church, with six other families — each one crammed
> into a bedroom. Last month she walked out of her job —
> washing dishes at the café in Vanderbijlpark — because
> she refused to wear the required green overall. “I was
> happy to wash the floors and the toilets and the dishes but
> when they tried to dress me like a kaffir, that’s when I
> said thanks, but no thanks,” she says.
>
> Sucking hard on her cigarette and blowing a yellow
> smoke-stream from the corner of her mouth, she is a
> bottle-blond caricature of Patricia Lewis.
>
> “The government, they must build us those — what
> youmacall it?” she says twisting her plump hand in the air
> for inspiration. “Those RDP houses. But ours must be here
> and the kaffirs must be over there. We don’t have to live
> by each other because poor blacks will always be much
> lower-class than poor whites.”
>
> White families live in the garages of many Vanderbijlpark
> homes — a lucrative business for the home-owners, who
> charge between R500 and R700 a month in rent.
>
> White poverty first came to prominence in South Africa
> during the 1920s when president Jan Smuts singled it out as
> the greatest threat to Afrikaner survival. Initially a rural
> problem of subsistence farmers and bywoners
> (share-croppers), it developed into an urban phenomenon
> during the Great Depression. The official tally of poor
> whites increased from 10 000 in 1890 to 535 000 in 1936.
> They lived on the periphery of white society; many were
> barely literate and almost unemployable.
>
> In 1948 DF Malan romped to power on the slogan “The white
> man must remain master”, and set about creating the
> apartheid system that would allow whites “to remain white
> and live white”. An economic safety net was constructed by
> the apartheid state through the colour bar, the distinction
> between “civilised” and “uncivilised” labour,
> protectionist policies for companies that employed whites,
> and minimum wage laws that insulated semi-skilled whites
> from competition by unskilled blacks.
>
> The Apprenticeship Act of 1922, a mainstay of apartheid
> labour legislation, is ironically the downfall of many poor
> whites today. It stipulated a standard six pass as a minimum
> qualification for apprenticeship in 41 trades, including the
> giant iron and steel industries.
>
> A privatised Iscor — whose Vanderbijlpark plant has shed
> 16 000 jobs in the past 10 years — is the source of most
> white poverty in the Vaal Triangle. Poor whites were Iscor
> “appies”, like their fathers before them, at a time when
> state-owned businesses provided sheltered employment for
> whites and their children. Today, their lack of formal
> education renders them redundant.
>
> Racial transformation over the past decade, including
> economic redress in the form of affirmative action and black
> economic empowerment, has deepened their despair. “Whites
> have been set quite a severe test by transformation
> policies,” says Schlemmer. “Whenever a population is put
> to this kind of test it produces heightened performance
> among those who are confident and well-educated, while some
> drop out at the bottom. In other words, it increases
> inequality. It is plunging the minority at the bottom into
> deeper poverty and sharpening the wits at the top end.”
>
> In 1994 44% of civil service posts were held by whites; by
> last year this had dropped to about 20%. In 1996 almost 50%
> of technicians and artisans were white; today the figure has
> fallen to about 20%.
>
> With the sense of abandonment goes fatalistic inertia and
> heightened religionism. The houses of poor whites are full
> of Durer’s praying hands and other religious
> paraphernalia; all insist God has sent them poverty as a
> test. Rather than job-hunt, many sit in their front yards
> — uncovered patches of ground littered with cigarette
> butts, dogs and chickens — waiting for divine
> dispensation.
>
> In the younger generation, rebellion typically takes the
> form of dabbling in Satanism.
>
> Poor whites are detached and alienated from post-1994
> politics, although some express dismay at former president
> FW de Klerk’s failure to drive a harder bargain for
> whites.
>
> Bertus Bornman, a garage-dweller who earns R5 200 as a
> boiler operator at Iscor, complained that President Thabo
> Mbeki “should stop looking outside the country, and look
> inward” at its problems.
>
> Most refuse to take “charity” from the current
> government. They are aware of assistance in the form of
> child and disability grants, but have not bothered to find
> out how to access them. “We’ll never beg,” said
> Nikkie.
>
> Despite the professions of sturdy self-reliance, there is
> heavy dependency on private charity from middle-class
> Afrikaners, church organisations and Child Welfare. The
> Vanderbijlpark Christian Centre, a local church, has three
> homes for destitutes in Vanderbijlpark, while the NG Kerk
> has arranged support groups for alcoholics and the mentally
> ill.
>
> Alcohol abuse and domestic violence are rife, and suicides
> or attempted suicides apparently common among the youth.
> Sarie de Preez (37) lives with her mother, who now provides
> for her, after her drunken husband, Bennie, nearly beat her
> to death with a plank in front of her five-year-old twin
> boys.
>
> Felicity Curry (17) says she tried to kill herself last
> year by swallowing 28 pills after being raped by the leader
> of the Satanist cult. She lost her virginity at 13, after a
> lodger in her mother’s house gave her a choice: sex, or he
> would reveal her smoking habit to her parents. Her ankle is
> greyed with a slapdash tattoo that reads “Sex Cat”; the
> words “Bad Bitch” encircle her navel. She claims to have
> weaned herself from addiction to dagga and ecstasy.
>
> There is an eeriness about Vanderbijlpark at weekends. The
> enduring image is of dilapidated Iscor homes, grimy children
> spinning tops on dusty lawns, and their dull, bleary-eyed
> fathers leaning on crooked gates.
>
> “Die witmense kry swaar en die kaffirs kry lekker [Whites
> are suffering and kaffirs are doing great],” complains
> Bornman. He is a stranger in a strange, new South Africa,
> hopelessly alienated from its politics, washed up by change,
> imprisoned by a racial pride that harks back to a vanished
> era. He is one of apartheid’s hidden victims.
>
>
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> some updated info since 2004-
>
> SA: 1-million poor Afrikaners n 2007
> Date Posted: Thursday 17-Jan-2008
>
> Unemployment among Afrikaners has increased by 200% since
> 1994 -- and between 10% to 12% of the Afrikaners were by
> 2001 on incomes well below the breadline, with some
> 1-million Afrikaners totally destitute by 2007.
>
> White poverty is often 'hidden' because it
> manifests differently than the highly-visible poverty in
> black squatter camps.
> Poor-whites are deeply ashamed of their poverty and hide
> behind fences, in backyard shanties, garages, caravan parks
> and other meagre housing.
>
> This was said by Flip Buys of the trade union Solidarity.
> "There's a much greater stigma attached to poverty
> among whites and they hide it".
> STATISTICS-SA noted in 2002 that unemployment among
> 'whites' had increased dramatically with 197%
> between 1995 to 2001, leaving hundreds of thousands of
> Afrikaners permanently unemployable and destitute.
>
> “Because of the high visibility of black poverty, the
> poor white problem does not draw much attention,' says
> Solidarity's spokesman. "There still remains these
> strong perceptions that all whites are wealthy and black
> people are poor.
> "Afrikaner poverty is much more difficult to see.
> Instead of living in large squatter camps, they hide their
> 'newly poor' status.'
> It is socially-unacceptable for Afrikaners to be poor and
> unemployed:
> "People will write that they are 'marketers'
> or 'consultants' on their census-forms rather than
> admitting that they are unemployed.
> “previously, Afrikaners could still access bursaries,
> education and advancement.
> "Now with black-economic-empowerment laws, these
> rights have been barred to Afrikaner whites.
> "They now find themselves in a dilemma in which their
> career-advancement stagnates and their children can't
> find bursaries and jobs because they are white.'
> Solidarity has set up a Bursary programme to try and
> alleviate this problem for Afrikaner youths.
>
>
> here are comments from the white racist website stormfront
>
> TIA
> This is africa
> The whites need to all move into one area and form a
> majority of their own. but i cant see it how they will do
> it. They look like they are doomed,
> its only going to get worse.
>
> ---------------------------------------------------------------
>
> I saw that doco on poor whites in South Africa and it made
> me glad I chose Australia after Rhodesia went black. I had
> family in Australia but not
> close family South Africa was an option but I could see
> they were going too and I was pissed at them for forcing us
> to black majority rule. They
> sold us out to gain a few more years. Besides there was no
> black problem in Australia they are the minority, thank god.
> They ( White South
> Africans) should have prepared themselves better, its
> interesting how the Afrikaaners thought themselves superior
> to those of English background.
> Now they are suffering the most and the better educated as
> a rule English background South Africans are still doing
> okay for the time being. The
> kaffirs want the whole shooting match. No balls Mugabe
> showed how cunning they are for a few years he left the
> whites alone, thats one bastard
> I will never understand why we never assasinated him back
> in 79. Turns out he had whites helping him, bloody traitors
> wonder where they finished
> up. Oh well we cant win everywhere but would be good if we
> won somewhere.
> Rhodesianbigot
> ------------------------------------------
>
> here are some other comments from another website talking
> about the video-
>
>
> What goes around, comes around and the interviewer have the
> nerve to be asking only questions about whites, glad
> she got put in she place at the end. Whites will never rule
> South Africa again. The nerve to think they will get the
> same treatment as before, good for dem 350 Years of abuse
> now all of a sudden they don't like it when they are
> wearing the same shoe from the past. It serve dem right so
> poor whites, is them put themselves into that kind of
> situation they are today so they should blame dem selves
> and dey racist rulers of the time for there now hardship.
> Meh feel no remorse.
> -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>
>
>
> The only time white people care about Africa is when news
> of whites being mistreated is reported.
>
>
> -----------------------------------------------------
>
>
>
> While I do feel bad for the poor of any race, I can't
> feel sorry for these folks at all. It's not like they
> were born into
> poverty like some whites in the US...these folks lived
> comfortably under the Apartheid system, I'm pretty sure
> they
> weren't crying racial injustice when they passed the
> many poor black people on their way to work and their nice
> homes. So now that the shoe is on the other foot it's
> "boo hoo the government is racist". They obviously
> were so
> comfortable under the Apartheid system they just painted
> themselves in a corner and refused to grow with the new
> South Africa. I bet they still cussing black people today.
>
>
> ---------------------------------------------------------------
>
> All whites should leave South Africa (maybe Africa in
> general). I have been saying that for years.
> They can come to America; they would fit right in.
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------
>
>
>
> -----------------------------------
>
>
> link for first article
>
> South Africa: Poor whites are strangers in a new land - Norwegian Council for Africa
>
>
 
Last edited:
#49
THE last one and that's it.


[FONT=Verdana, Arial]Angola : Poverty level nearly halved in a decade

[/FONT][FONT=Verdana, Arial]On Wednesday 20 October the UN's Resident Coordinator in Angola, Koen Vanormelingen, said that poverty levels in Angola have dropped from 63% percent in 2002 to 38% in 2009, and noted other advances in living standards.

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[FONT=Verdana, Arial]Among the other advances in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) highlighted by Vanormelingen are increased primary schooling and the expansion of a national health network. In a previous report in June the UN gave some other impressive figures: malnutrition dropped from 35% in 2002 to 23% in 2010, school enrolment has surged to 76%, gender parity is close to being achieved in schools, with 98 girls for every 100 boys (although low pass-through rates mean that education is still a priority), infant mortality is down nearly 20% and the proportion of child deaths from malaria has fallen. The UN sees progress on five (of eight) MDGs: malnutrition, education, gender balance, child survival and malaria, and HIV/AIDS.[/FONT]

[FONT=Verdana, Arial]Areas that still require attention are maternal mortality at birth, which is still high owing to a lack of midwives, and water and sanitation: only 42% of the population has access to safe drinking water and 60% to basic sanitation.

[/FONT][FONT=Verdana, Arial]The primary driver of progress in all these areas is Angola's oil-driven economic growth, and the foreign investment that goes with it. This provides a tax base for government to honour its exemplary financial commitment: 30% of the national budget goes to social programmes.

[/FONT][FONT=Verdana, Arial]Vanormelingen did warn that economic and social disparities between the richest and the poorest in Angola could place the gains made at risk, and said that reducing these disparities was the goal of co-operation programmes between the UN and the Angolan government.

Angola : Poverty level nearly halved in a decade - On Wednesday 20 October the UN's Resident Coord... | Les Afriques | African Finance Journal - Africa Economy Stock Bank Insurance Investment - Les Afriques
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UN: Resource-rich Africa well placed to transition to


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Africans are moving ON

RECENT NEWS-
ZIMBABWE

Zimbabwe could earn billions of dollars
a year selling diamonds from a region scarred by army abuse, officials said Wednesday after a crisis that left the global "blood diamond" watchdog badly tarnished.
Opponents slammed the decision by the Kimberley Process (KP) to let the country resume sales of diamonds from the Marange region, saying it risked making the watchdog's seal of approval meaningless, and would fund rights abuses by President Robert Mugabe's party ahead of elections.
"It's really a travesty, and calls into question the future of the Kimberley Process and its credentials as a scheme which provides consumers with any kind of guarantee that their diamonds are blood-free," Mike Davis of rights group Global Witness told AFP.
"The prime beneficiaries may well be particularly dubious and in some cases violent figures within the political establishment in Zimbabwe who are looking for ways to pay for the kind of abusive and intimidatory tactics which they typically use in the run-up to elections."
Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai, who shares power with Mugabe in a tense coalition government, called for revenue from the gems to be handled transparently.
"What we are of course concerned about is that once those diamonds have been disposed of all the money must go through the fiscus," he told journalists.
"I am hoping that this green light by KP allows us as government to control the resource in Marange in a transparent and open manner."
The decision allows two firms, state-owned Marange Resources and state joint venture Mbada Diamonds, to sell gems from Marange, one of Africa's biggest diamond finds in decades and the site of gross human rights violations.
Human Rights Watch says Mugabe's army killed more than 200 people in late 2008 in an operation to clear small-scale miners from the area, and Kimberley investigators confirmed abuses that resulted in a ban on the region's diamonds.
Tuesday's deal came after negotiations involving Zimbabwe, the European Union, South Africa, the United States and the World Diamond Council, which monitors KP compliance.
It resolves a deadlock that had threatened to derail the KP, with India and China supporting a resumption of Marange sales over bitter opposition from Western nations, rights groups and the industry.
A US State Department spokeswoman said the United States had abstained from the vote in order to help the KP move past "a debilitating impasse".
"We continue to have concerns about the situation in Marange," spokeswoman Elizabeth Trudeau of the US embassy in Pretoria said in an email.
But she added: "The United States continues to support the KP strongly and is committed to working with all stakeholders to strengthen the process."
Mines Minister Obert Mpofu, a Mugabe ally, said Zimbabwe stands to rake in more than $2.0 billion (1.5 billion euros) a year in diamond revenues thanks to the decision, calling it a needed boost to the economy.
"We want to shock and shake the world," he told journalists. "Now we are going to unleash our worthiness to the world. Zimbabwe will not be begging from anybody.
But Edward Cross, a lawmaker from Tsvangirai's rival MDC party, said the KP should not have cleared the sale.
"I think it was absolutely wrong to allow the Marange diamonds to be sold," he told AFP.
"I have evidence that the value and volumes of Marange diamonds are being underestimated and are being used to subvert the democratic process in Zimbabwe."
Rights groups accuse Mugabe's ZANU-PF party of funneling profits from Marange diamonds to senior military officials and party leaders.
Under the power-sharing deal, Zimbabwe is due to draft a new constitution to pave the way to fresh elections, which could be held as soon as next year.


source:
SkyscraperCity


________________________________________________


Subject: Africa you wont see on TV

What Bono doesn't say about Africa

Celebrities like to portray it as a basket case, but they ignore very real progress.
By William Easterly
WILLIAM EASTERLY is a professor of economics at New York University, Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution and the author of "The White Man's Burden: How the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have

JUST WHEN IT SEEMED that Western images of Africa could not get any weirder, the July 2007 special Africa issue of Vanity Fair was published, complete with a feature article on "Madonna's Malawi." At the same time, the memoirs of an African child soldier are on sale at your local Starbucks, and celebrity activist Bob Geldof is touring Africa yet again, followed by TV cameras, to document that "War, Famine, Plague & Death are the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse and these days they're riding hard through the back roads of Africa."


It's a dark and scary picture of a helpless, backward continent that's being offered up to TV watchers and coffee drinkers. But in fact, the real Africa is quite a bit different. And the problem with all this Western stereotyping is that it manages to snatch defeat from the jaws of some current victories, fueling support for patronizing Western policies designed to rescue the allegedly helpless African people while often discouraging those policies that might actually help.

Let's begin with those rampaging Four Horsemen. Do they really explain Africa today? What percentage of the African population would you say dies in war every year? What share of male children, age 10 to 17, are child soldiers? How many Africans are afflicted by famine or died of AIDS last year or are living as refugees?

In each case, the answer is one-half of 1% of the population or less. In some cases it's much less; for example, annual war deaths have averaged 1 out of every 10,800 Africans for the last four decades. That doesn't lessen the tragedy, of course, of those who are such victims, and maybe there are things the West can do to help them. But the typical African is a long way from being a starving, AIDS-stricken refugee at the mercy of child soldiers. The reality is that many more Africans need latrines than need Western peacekeepers -- but that doesn't play so well on TV.

Further distortions of Africa emanate from former British Prime Minister Tony Blair's star-studded Africa Progress Panel (which includes the ubiquitous Geldof). The panel laments in its 2007 news release that Africa remains "far short" of its goal of making "substantial inroads into poverty reduction." But this doesn't quite square with the sub-Saharan Africa that in 2006 registered its third straight year of good GDP growth -- about 6%, well above historic averages for either today's rich countries or all developing countries. Growth of living standards in the last five years is the highest in Africa's history.


The real Africa also has seen cellphone and Internet use double every year for the last seven years. Foreign private capital inflows into Africa hit $38 billion in 2006 — more than foreign aid. Africans are saving a higher percentage of their incomes than Americans are (so much for the "poverty trap" of being "too poor to save" endlessly repeated in aid reports). I agree that it's too soon to conclude that Africa is on a stable growth track, but why not celebrate what Africans have already achieved?


Instead, the international development establishment is rigging the game to make Africa look even worse than it really is. It announces, for instance, that Africa is the only region that is failing to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in aid-speak) set out by the United Nations. Well, it takes extraordinary growth to cut extreme poverty rates in half by 2015 (the first goal) when a near-majority of the population is poor, as is the case in Africa. (Latin America, by contrast, requires only modest growth to halve its extreme poverty rate from 10% to 5%.)


This is how Blair's panel managed to call Africa's recent growth successes a failure. But the reality is that virtually all other countries that have escaped extreme poverty did so through the kind of respectable growth that Africa is enjoying — not the kind of extraordinary growth that would have been required to meet the arbitrary Millennium Development Goals.


Africa will also fail to meet the second goal of universal primary education by 2015. But this goal is also rigged against Africa, because Africa started with an unusually low percentage of children enrolled in elementary school. As economist Michael Clemens points out, most African countries have actually expanded enrollments far more rapidly over the last five decades than Western countries did during their development, but Africans still won't reach the arbitrary aid target of universal enrollment by 2015. For example, the World Bank condemned Burkina Faso in 2003 as "seriously off track" to meet the second MDG, yet the country has expanded elementary education at more than twice the rate of Western historical experience, and it is even far above the faster educational expansions of all other developing countries in recent decades.

Why do aid organizations and their celebrity backers want to make African successes look like failures? One can only speculate, but it certainly helps aid agencies get more publicity and more money if problems seem greater than they are. As for the stars — well, could Africa be saving celebrity careers more than celebrities are saving Africa?


In truth, Africans are and will be escaping poverty the same way everybody else did: through the efforts of resourceful entrepreneurs, democratic reformers and ordinary citizens at home, not through PR extravaganzas of ill-informed outsiders.

The real Africa needs increased trade from the West more than it needs more aid handouts. A respected Ugandan journalist, Andrew Mwenda, made this point at a recent African conference despite the fact that the world's most famous celebrity activist — Bono — was attempting to shout him down. Mwenda was suffering from too much reality for Bono's taste: "What man or nation has ever become rich by holding out a begging bowl?" asked Mwenda.

Perhaps Bono was grouchy because his celebrity-laden "Red" campaign to promote Western brands to finance begging bowls for Africa has spent $100 million on marketing and generated sales of only $18 million, according to a recent report. But the fact remains that the West shows a lot more interest in begging bowls than in, say, letting African cotton growers compete fairly in Western markets (see the recent collapse of world trade talks).

Today, as I sip my Rwandan gourmet coffee and wear my Nigerian shirt here in New York, and as European men eat fresh Ghanaian pineapple for breakfast and bring Kenyan flowers home to their wives, I wonder what it will take for Western consumers to learn even more about the products of self-sufficient, hardworking, dignified Africans. Perhaps they should spend less time consuming Africa disaster stereotypes from television and Vanity Fair.


______

Sub-Saharan Africa: Boom cutting poverty
IWF NEWS: Sub-Saharan Africa: Boom cutting poverty - SkyscraperCity


Africa The Good News


Africa you wont see on TV
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m5EIyAxk9-8&feature=related"]YouTube - Broadcast Yourself.[/ame]


and

africa rising/africa open for business
SkyscraperCity
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[/FONT]




The Africa You Never See



read article and see youtube links at the bottom or after.


The Africa You Never See
In the waiting area of a large office complex in Accra, Ghana, it's standing room only as citizens with bundles of cash line up to buy shares of a mutual fund that has yielded an average 60 percent annually for the past seven years. They're entrusting their hard-earned cash to a local company called Databank, which invests in stock markets in Ghana, Nigeria, Botswana and Kenya that consistently rank among the world's top growth markets.



Chances are you haven't read or heard anything about Databank in your daily newspaper or on the evening news, where the little coverage of Africa that's offered focuses almost exclusively on the negative -- the virulent spread of HIV/AIDS, genocide in Darfur and the chaos of Zimbabwe.

Yes, Africa is a land of wars, poverty and corruption. The situation in places like Darfur, Sudan, desperately cries out for more media attention and international action. But Africa is also a land of stock markets, high rises, Internet cafes and a growing middle class. This is the part of Africa that functions. And this Africa also needs media attention, if it's to have any chance of fully joining the global economy.


Consider a few facts: The Ghana Stock Exchange regularly tops the list of the world's highest-performing stock markets. Botswana, with its A+ credit rating, boasts one of the highest per capita government savings rates in the world, topped only by Singapore and a handful of other fiscally prudent nations. Cell phones are making phenomenal profits on the continent. Brand-name companies like Coca-Cola, GM, Caterpillar and Citibank have invested in Africa for years and are quite bullish on the future.

The failure to show this side of Africa creates a one-dimensional caricature of a complex continent. Imagine if 9/11, the Oklahoma City bombing and school shootings were all that the rest of the world knew about America.
The little-known fact is that businesses are thriving throughout Africa. With good governance and sound fiscal policies, countries like Botswana, Ghana, Uganda, Senegal and many more are bustling, their economies growing at surprisingly robust rates.


Private enterprise is not just limited to the well-behaved nations. You can't find a more war-ravaged land than Somalia, which has been without a central government for more than a decade. The big surprise? Private enterprise is flourishing. Mogadishu has the cheapest cell phone rates on the continent, mostly due to no government intervention. In the northern city of Hargeysa, the markets sell the latest satellite phone technology. The electricity works. When the state collapsed in 1991, the national airline went out of business. Today, there are five private carriers and price wars keep the cost of tickets down. This is not the Somalia you see in the media.

Obviously life there would be dramatically improved by good governance -- or even just some governance -- but it's also true that, through resilience and resourcefulness, Somalis have been able to create a functioning society.

Throughout Africa, what I found was a private sector working hard to find African solutions to African problems. One example that will always stick in my mind is the CEO of Vodacom Congo, the largest cell phone company in that country. Alieu Conteh started his business while the civil war was still raging. With rebel troops closing in on the airport in Kinshasa, no foreign manufacturer would send in a cell phone tower, so Conteh got locals to collect scrap metal, which they welded together to build one. That tower still stands today.

Still the simplistic portrayals come. A recent episode of the popular NBC drama "Medical Investigation" was about an anthrax scare in Philadelphia. The source of the deadly spores? Some illegal immigrants from Africa playing their drums in a local market, unknowingly infecting innocent passersby. Typical: If it's a deadly disease, the scriptwriters make it come from Africa.


Most of the time, Africa is simply not on the map. The continent's booming stock markets are almost never mentioned in newspaper financial pages. How often is an African country -- apart, perhaps, from South Africa or Egypt or Morocco -- featured in a newspaper travel section? Even the listing of worldwide weather includes only a few African cities.

The result of this portrait is an Africa we can't relate to. It seems so foreign to us, so different and incomprehensible. Since we can't relate to it, we ignore it.


There are lots of reasons for the media's neglect of Africa: bean counters in the newsroom and the high cost of international coverage, the belief that American viewers aren't interested in international stories, and the infotainment of news. There's also journalists' reluctance to pursue so-called "positive stories." We all know that such stories don't win awards or get front-page, above-the-fold placement. But what's happening in Africa doesn't need to be cast in any special light. The Ghana Stock Exchange was the fastest-growing exchange in the world in 2003. That's not a "positive" story, that's news, just like reports on the London Stock Exchange. I imagine a lot of consumers would have found it newsworthy to learn where they could have made a 144 percent return on their money.

My independent film was made possible by funding from the World Bank, for which I am extremely grateful. But the bank wouldn't have had to step in if the media had been doing their job -- showing all Africans in all facets of their lives. In a business that's supposed to cover man-bites-dog stories, the idea that Africa doesn't work is a dog-bites-man story. If the media are really looking for news, they'd look at the ways that Africa, despite all the odds, does work.
__________________
quote-
Madonna’s public fervour about African orphans, for example, makes Adichie’s eyes roll: “Madonna is free to adopt children from wherever she wants. But I heard her saying that she wanted people to go to Africa and adopt children. Nobody helps Africa by adopting its children. We need to talk about structural things like loans and trade. I just wish I wasn’t from a continent about which everyone has to feel sorry.”

Adichie is indignant about the type of news coverage that Africa usually ends up with: “On TV you never see Africans involved in helping Africa. It’s always some kind westerner. If I got my information only from American TV, I would think Africans were a bunch of stupid idiots.”


Equally, the Bob Geldof modus operandi does not do much for Adichie: “The Africa that you see on TV here is not the Africa I know. Africans don’t sit down, filled with despair, at least the ones I know don’t. They move on with life. Even in the poorest areas of Africa there are people who are showing initiative. There are other stories to tell.”


Africa you Never See on TV - Algeria, Angola, Benin.
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-x8eqxKV5Z4"]Africa you Never See on TV - Algeria, Angola, Benin. - YouTube[/ame]


Africa you never see on tv
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PvC64lWeu-s&feature=related"]Africa you never see on tv - YouTube[/ame]


NIGERIA BEAUTY, YOU DON'T SEE ON TV
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mGwZLjDFac"]NIGERIA BEAUTY, YOU DON'T SEE ON TV - YouTube[/ame]


Lagos, Nigeria - The Africa You Don't See On Television Pt 1
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSKvgU3TEm4&feature=related"]Lagos, Nigeria - The Africa You Don't See On Television Pt 1 - YouTube[/ame]



Lagos, Nigeria - The Africa You Don't See On Television Pt 2
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mR9CW8s3QUw&feature=related"]Lagos, Nigeria - The Africa You Don't See On Television Pt 2 - YouTube[/ame]



Africa you wont see on TV / BOTSWANA
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m5EIyAxk9-8&feature=related"]YouTube - Broadcast Yourself.[/ame]



African success BOTSWANA
[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0IcGjXPEl4&feature=related"]BOTSWANA CITY gaborone - YouTube[/ame]



EgyptSearch Forums: Africa you will never see on TV







EgyptSearch Forums: Africa you will never see on TV






Bye.
 
Last edited:
Dec 2011
133
#50
the entire political makeup of africa (aside from ethiopia and arguably egypt, and the maghreb) were invented by europeans not for ethnic and political cohesion but for resource extraction. the problems facing Africa today are mostly due to the unwillingness of the people and their leaders to accept the arbitrary nature of the present day sub-saharan state. I suggest you read Crawford Young's "the African colonial state in comparative perspective" all your questions will be invariably answered.