What led to the current African poverty?

Ighayere

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
2,570
Benin City, Nigeria
By the way, for anyone that wants to actually understand the cocoa situation in Ghana during that time, this is a brief read that gives some insight:

Nkrumah’s Cocoa Policy and Economic Development

Obviously when the world prices for cocoa were declining that drastically it was going to have a major effect on Ghana's economy. But to try to claim that there was a deliberate government attempt to suppress cocoa production and that this is what caused a decline is foolish.
 
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Ighayere

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
2,570
Benin City, Nigeria
Also, Ghana clearly reached its highest production records of cocoa up to that point in time under Nkrumah's administration so to say that "agricultural development in cocoa production in Ghana was however stopped short as soon as Nkrumah took the power" is just a really blatant falsehood.

There was a collapse in world prices for cocoa in 1964-1965, but that is a different thing than there being some supposed stoppage of agricultural development in cocoa production by the government, and that does not have anything to do with what Ghana's government did or did not do to develop cocoa production.
 
Likes: Futurist
Oct 2014
356
kenya
. For example Japan average is one the highest in the world but Japan hardly has as many Nobel prize winners as Sweden. They are not a breakthrough nation but a maintenance one. That's because the average doesn't deviate much from the extremes.
I'm sorry but you're speaking nonsense. The Nobel Prize is only relevant in a particular cultural context. It does not mean anything in the grand scheme of things. You might as well be speaking about King Saud's Prize. You're also making assertions that don't make sense because you're trying to deduce Japan from it's present state. It's how people say Africa can't develop because of it's culture the same way as was done for Japan, China, etc.
 
Dec 2011
2,160
I don't know if anyone has mentioned this before, but one thing that Africa has always lacked is beasts of burden. All other parts of the Old World had horses, while zebra are notoriously untrainable. There are elephants, but the African elephant, unlike the Asian, does not seem to tolerate domestication.
 
Likes: Futurist
Apr 2017
681
Lemuria
I don't know if anyone has mentioned this before, but one thing that Africa has always lacked is beasts of burden. All other parts of the Old World had horses, while zebra are notoriously untrainable. There are elephants, but the African elephant, unlike the Asian, does not seem to tolerate domestication.
I dismiss the beast of burden hypothesis as invalid. Neither did the mayans, Incas, or Aztecs have real beasts of burden other that the alpacas and allies. It's just a hypothesis that is repeated over and over and assumed to be true but never really put to the test. People are the best beasts of the burden of all.
 
Dec 2011
2,160
I dismiss the beast of burden hypothesis as invalid. Neither did the mayans, Incas, or Aztecs have real beasts of burden other that the alpacas and allies. It's just a hypothesis that is repeated over and over and assumed to be true but never really put to the test. People are the best beasts of the burden of all.
It's not so much a hypothesis as a fact; the Africans didn't have useful beasts of burden. The South Americans used llamas and alpacas, as you say. I don't know why you dismiss the beast of burden hypothesis as invalid.
 
Apr 2017
681
Lemuria
It's not so much a hypothesis as a fact; the Africans didn't have useful beasts of burden. The South Americans used llamas and alpacas, as you say. I don't know why you dismiss the beast of burden hypothesis as invalid.
What I'm saying is humans are the beasts of burden so the beast of burden requirement to build a civilization is not valid at all. Tenochtitlan wasn't built with beasts of burden but by men. Another bad hypothesis is African animals can't be domesticated. Domestication is a long evolutionary process. They didn't domesticate the wolves overnight. Because a hypothesis is repeated over and over doesn't mean it is true.
 
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MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
2,756
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
I don't know if anyone has mentioned this before, but one thing that Africa has always lacked is beasts of burden. All other parts of the Old World had horses, while zebra are notoriously untrainable. There are elephants, but the African elephant, unlike the Asian, does not seem to tolerate domestication.
I dismiss the beast of burden hypothesis as invalid. Neither did the mayans, Incas, or Aztecs have real beasts of burden other that the alpacas and allies. It's just a hypothesis that is repeated over and over and assumed to be true but never really put to the test. People are the best beasts of the burden of all.
It's not so much a hypothesis as a fact; the Africans didn't have useful beasts of burden. The South Americans used llamas and alpacas, as you say. I don't know why you dismiss the beast of burden hypothesis as invalid.
What I'm saying is humans are the beasts of burden so the beast of burden requirement to build a civilization is not valid at all. Tenochtitlan wasn't built with beasts of burden but by men. Another bad hypothesis is African animals can't be domesticated. Domestication is a long evolutionary process. They didn't domesticate the wolves overnight. Because a hypothesis is repeated over and over doesn't mean it is true.
I say that Africa was the original homeland of humans, humans who hunted animals but otherwise had nothing to do with them. Some humans migrated out of Africa and spread across Asia and Europe. Tens of thousands of years later, some of those humans in distant continents began to domesticate animals. And eventually Africans began to acquire domesticated animals from people in other lands. But the idea of taking wild animals and domesticating them was never a big part of most ancient African cultures.

Zebras can be trained. But no living zebra is descended from hundreds or thousands of generations of domesticated ancestors, that itself is enough to make present day zebras wilder than horses. And Zebras are probably less easy to domesticate than horses, so even after hundreds of generations of being domesticated they would probably not be as easy to use as horses.

Elephants are not domesticated. Animals have to be bred in captivity for many generations to be domesticated, and most captive elephants were captured from the wild.

As for training African elephants, the Carthaginians used extinct North African elephants in war. It is unknown whether those elephants were Loxondonta africana, Loxodonta cyclotis, or a separate species. During the Hellenistic age, the Ptolemys of Egypt imported elephants from Eritrea for their armies, presumably Loxondonta africana, Loxodonta cyclotis, or a separate species. The Romans used elephants for war and civilian purposes. Caesar's famous elephant coin required many different dies to produce the countless thousands of coins. And some examples of the elephant coin show generic elephants, some show clearly Asian elephants, and some show clearly African elephants.

In the 6th century, "Byzantine" ambassadors were received by the Axumite king of kings in a chariot pulled by elephants, more likely to be African than Asian. The Axumites invaded and conquered part of South Arabia, and then their governor made himself king. King Abraha sent a failed expedition to Mecca using one or more war elephants, which is dated to The Year of the Elephant, believed to have been about AD 570. Soon after, also about AD 570, the Sassanid dynasty invaded and conquered Yemen, and there may have been battles with Sassanid Asian elephants fighting Abyssinian African elephants.

The drawing by Matthew Paris of King Henry III's royal elephant indicates that it could have been an African elephant. Matthew Paris and the Elephant at the Tower

As I remember, in 1875 the Sultan of Zanzibar was visiting London and walking through Hyde Park, site of the zoo, and was terrified to suddenly see an African elephant walking through the park! The Zanzibarians believed that African elephants were ferocious, savage, and untameable, which might have been due to Zanzibar being the center of the ivory trade.

The African elephant was Jumbo himself. Thousands of children rode on the back of Jumbo, and countless thousands of children bought buns and handed them to Jumbo.

There have been many other tamed or trained African elephants. Since exportation of Asian elephants has been banned, more and more circus and zoo elephants are African elephants.

Elephant Interaction
 
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Likes: Eryl Enki
Nov 2018
84
West Covina
>1948-1991 Britain and US supporting Apartheid in order to gain access to diamonds and gold of South Africa. Following apartheid, they helped install a neoliberal economic regime that ensured SA could not raise wages and had to accept US agricultural dumping.
>1960- 1993 France helped keep Houphouet-Boigny, who in turn helped with coups against Nkrumah and Sankara, in power for 30 years in Cote d’Ivoire.
>1961: Pan-Africanist Patrice Lumumba, Congo’s first independence leader, in office two months before being assassinated with help from Belgium and US on direct orders of Eisenhower.
>1965-1997 The US installed Mobutu as President, and Congo/Zaire’s poverty levels rocketed.
>1966: Ghanaian president Nkrumah promoted policies were simple keynesian economics, the same that had allowed Europe and the US to recover and build a strong social safety net after WW2. He was forced out in a US backed coup.
>1967-2009 France supported Bongo’s 40 year dictatorship in Gabon, guaranteeing France access to the country’s resources.
>1971: Britain and Israel took down Obote in Uganda. Obote wanted to nationalise the colonial British banks, The Uk wanted to retain it’s ability to extract wealth even after “independence”.
>1972: Portugal assist in assassination of liberation leader Cabral in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde
>1975 Angola finally gains independence from Portugal. After independence, US, British, French and Portugal get involved in the civil war which last till 2002.
>1987 Thomas Sankara, President of Burkina Faso who advocated for pan-African unity and called attention to the crippling loans of the IMF, which were forcing the Global South to remain poor, is assassinated with French help.


It's no just assassinations and coups either

https://mg.co.za/article/2017-11-10hi
>Victims of the EU’s shockingly immoral approach to trade in poultry include, to date, Cameroon, Senegal, Ghana and, more recently, South Africa. As a consequence of a flood of imports, 70% of broiler operations in Senegal closed. In Cameroon, 120000 people lost their jobs. In Ghana, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, poultry processing plants were reduced to operating at 25% of capacity, and feed mills were reduced to 42% of capacity.

>At the 2016 UN General Assembly, Ghana’s President John Mahama claimed that the imported chicken crisis was a key factor for many people migrating from Africa to Europe. Ghanaians who embark on the risky journey to Europe are poultry farmers or entrepreneurs who “sell their shops and undertake the journey because they can no longer compete with the tonnes of frozen chicken dumped on African markets annually”.

US President Barack Obama has given South Africa 60 days to remove barriers to US farm produce or face sanctions in a long-running row over chicken exports.
www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-34744729

Africa ‘subsidises’ the rest of the world to the tune of $41bn (£32bn) a year, according to a new analysis of the amount of money flowing in and out of the continent.
>The Honest Accounts 2017 report by Global Justice Now, the Jubilee Debt Campaign and other groups estimated the total amount going into sub-Saharan Africa at $161.6bn, while the total amount going out was put at $202.9bn.
>The outflows included debt repayments by governments and the private sector, multinational company profits, the ‘brain drain’ effect, illegal logging, fishing and poaching, and costs associated with climate change, a problem largely caused by Europe, America and other developed countries.
>“Africa is rich – in potential mineral wealth, skilled workers, booming new businesses and biodiversity. Its people should thrive, its economies prosper,” the report said.
>Yet many people living in Africa’s 47 countries remain trapped in poverty, while much of the continent’s wealth is being extracted by those outside it”

Africa 'subsidises' the rest of the world by £32bn a year, campaigners say

>Tsetse were absent from much of southern and eastern Africa until colonial times. The accidental introduction of rinderpest in 1887 killed most of the cattle in these parts of Africa and the resulting famine removed much of the human population. Thorny bush ideal for tsetse quickly grew up where there had been pasture, and was repopulated by wild mammals. Tsetse and sleeping sickness soon colonised the whole region, effectively excluding the reintroduction of farming and animal husbandry.