Thanks for those figures. I am not surprised to see such small numbers of Peninsulares; I had the impression that the main reason for Peninsulares to be in Alta California in those days would be as governors or other colonial administrators. As for criollos, it's just a guess, but I assume at least a portion of them were in California as part of the Spanish army. I imagine there were far more mestizos and Christianized indios in the region than Spaniards, whether Criollos or from Spain itself...By other side about the thread.. Spanish Empire had not restrictions to foreigners always foreigners:
1st: they must be Catholic
2nd: They must swear allegiance to the Catholic King.
In fact, the Spanish Florida from 1783 onward had more British than Spaniards!!! (but all of them had to swear and all of them had to become Catholic!
In the year 1810, the Population in Alta California was 20.871 inhabitants between them 0,2% Peninsulares and 17,9% Criollos (so it is means 18,1% Spaniards... but only 0,2% from Peninsula). In Texas, in 1810, 0,6% people were Spaniards from Peninsula.
About New Spain Population 1793 to 1810 (in Spanish).
I had wondered, given the relatively small number of Spaniards in Alta California, if Spain had ever attempted to entice other Catholic European settlers to the region to help colonize it? I know, for example, that the British allowed Huguenots (fellow Protestants obviously) to settle in their North American colonies.
EDIT: I've just been having a read through this article (https://www.jstor.org/stable/25161670?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents) which seems to indicate that Spanish policy (at least officially, but not always in practice) was quite restrictive regarding foreigners in Alta California.
From page 299:
"In establishing Alta California as a colony, Spain imposed on it certain restrictive policies. The province was forbidden to trade with any foreign vessels; foreigners were strictly prohibited from taking up permanent residence".
Page 302-303 says that an American vessel, the Otter, visited Carmel beach in 1796, where the captain dumped eleven stowaways from Australia at gunpoint. When the Spanish colonial governor discovered them, he was "irate", but put them to work as blacksmiths and carpenters. The new arrivals proved to be good workers, but the governor was ordered to send them to Spain the following year, along with an Irish deserter named Joseph Burling who had jumped ship at Santa Barbara.
Page 303 does mention that, despite official Spanish restrictions on foreign vessels, American ships increasingly visited California to participate in the fur trade, which apparently was welcomed by many Spanish settlers, who were often short of supplies and welcomed the chance to barter with the ships for foreign and luxury goods. However, the article does say that: "Any Yankee trader caught in this illegal coastal trafficking faced stiff penalties, ranging from incarceration in poorly maintained prison cells to confiscation of ship and cargo."
Page 303 also mentions an "increase in the number of maritime deserters who opted for life in Alta California, bringing with them their labor skills and knowledge of commerce." Because Spain was unable to continue payments for local soldiery or continue to finance supply ships to California after France invaded Spain in 1808, the local Spanish colonists increasingly turned to illicit trade with American ships, which also began "the growing presence of Yankee maritime traders, many of whom became permanent residents."
Page 304 mentions that, on September 19, 1814, a Russian hunting party was captured and imprisoned by Spanish authorities. However, four Aleuts (who were among these prisoners) converted to Catholicism and married local women, becoming permanent residents in California.
Overall, the article gives two impressions regarding foreigners in Spanish California: the official Spanish policy being quite prohibitive against foreigners coming to Alta California, while the position of Spanish settlers on the ground seems to have been a bit more welcoming, at least in regards to trade with foreign ships. Regarding Russian presence at Fort Ross, the article points out that, due to Spain's preoccupations with the Napoleonic Wars and Latin-American independence movements, they could do little else against the Russians other than official protests.
Regarding naturalisation of foreigners in California, page 305 says that citizenship for foreigners was "forbidden under Spanish rule."