What was the Islamic Empire of the tenth century called at the time?

May 2019
2
UK
As in what did residents of the Empire call it? Obviously multiple languages were in use at the time but any examples from any of the languages would be helpful. Many thanks
 
Mar 2016
1,222
Australia
The Fatamid Caliphate is what we call it now, although I am not knowledgeable enough to say it was called locally or in Arabic.
 

johnincornwall

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
7,767
Cornwall
10th century - Caliphate of Cordoba in Iberia and the Fatimid Caliphate in North Africa. Two totally different beasts who weren't particularly fond of each other. One was Sunni and the other Shia but I suspect it was mainly political/geographical rivalry that brought them to a hostile status quo

So that's 2 empires and your question is a good one. I don't know either. To any subject or border country, they would only speak about 'the Caliphate' and the Caliph, one would imagine. In the case of Cordoba, 'the Omeya' (Umayyad)
 

AlpinLuke

Forum Staff
Oct 2011
27,192
Italy, Lago Maggiore
I suspect, since the world "Caliphate" comes from an Arab world [Khilafa = succession], that, if I remember well, they called it something like Al Khilafa.
 
Jan 2016
1,140
Victoria, Canada
It's worth noting that the Abbasid Caliphate did also still exist as an independent, somewhat potent polity in the early-mid 10th century, so there were three major states across 5000 kilometres claiming to be the "Caliphate". I'm in the same boat as everybody else though in not knowing what contemporary peoples called the Caliphates, but I am very curious, particularly concerning the Christian subjects of Islamic states. The Byzantines generally referred to them in ethno-religious/geographic terms, as the rulers of "Syria", "Egypt", "the Hagarenes", "the Saracens", "the Arabs", etc. (Leo the Deacon even refers to an early Fatimid Caliph as "the ruler of the Carthaginians"), but I wouldn't think the subjects of the Caliphs would be able to get away with that (though I could certainly be wrong).
 

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,641
Republika Srpska
It's worth noting that the Abbasid Caliphate did also still exist as an independent, somewhat potent polity in the early-mid 10th century, so there were three major states across 5000 kilometres claiming to be the "Caliphate". I'm in the same boat as everybody else though in not knowing what contemporary peoples called the Caliphates, but I am very curious, particularly concerning the Christian subjects of Islamic states. The Byzantines generally referred to them in ethno-religious/geographic terms, as the rulers of "Syria", "Egypt", "the Hagarenes", "the Saracens", "the Arabs", etc. (Leo the Deacon even refers to an early Fatimid Caliph as "the ruler of the Carthaginians"), but I wouldn't think the subjects of the Caliphs would be able to get away with that (though I could certainly be wrong).
FWIW, I believe John of Damascus called them Ishamaelites, Agarenes and Saracens.
 
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Tulun

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
3,877
Western Eurasia
I think these could be the most common forms for the Abbasid state: The Abbasid State, The Realm of the Sons of Abbas, State of the Sons of Abbas.

الدولة العباسية ,مملكة بني العباس,
دولة بني العباس
 
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