What were some of the major/interesting events/developments of the 10th century?

Mar 2016
887
Australia
#1
I confess that while I do have a general interest in the Medieval Era, I only have a satisfactory knowledge of certain periods of it, and the 10th century is possibly my 'worst' area. I know of only a few major historical events, such as the unification of England, the establishment of 'France' as a distinct entity from West Francia, the reign of Otto I and the creation of the Holy Roman Empire, and the establishment of the Fatamid Caliphate in Egypt and the Levant. Aside from these larger country/empire formations, what are some other things of interest that occurred in the 10th century, specifically in Europe and the Middle East?
 
Feb 2018
164
EU-Germany
#3
battle of the lechfeld 955
_ending of magyar raids
battle of stilo 982
_dismantling of nobility in southern italy (vaccum for the normans)
_slawenaufstand (major wendish revolts against the emperor/halt of christianization for the next 200years)
 

Larrey

Ad Honorem
Sep 2011
5,074
#4
Well... In Europe it was a high-point in Byzantine power and influence. Coinciding with the peak in power for the Bulgarian empire. Meaning conflict.
The Kievan Rus adopt Christianity.
The Norse settle in what was to become Normandy, becoming Normans.
Scandinavian kingdoms solidified and formalised (in chronology Gorm the Old, Denmark; Harold Fairhair, Norway, Erik the Victorious, Sweden).
Considerable Hungarian raiding of the German lands still.
The Cistercian monastic movement takes off.
Creation of the Roman Empire of German Nation under the Ottonian dynasty.
Capetingian dynasty Kings of the Franks, takes over after the Carolingians.
Southern France flowering; urbanization, complex social situation, and free trade (Montpellier, Narbonne, Toulouse).
Caliphate of Cordoba, i.e. most of Spain.
Italy comes out of a period of straight up confusion (Langobardian dynastic infighting, with Arabs mixed in), with the North going with the new authority of the Ottonian empire, while the south has a measure of Byzantine authority reestablished. (Period of recovery, before things really pick up in the 11th c., north Italian trade republics, Normans conquest of the south.) Sicily excluded, rule of he Emirate of Sicily.
 
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AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
25,533
Italy, Lago Maggiore
#5
Actually the X century wasn't extraordinary, the most curious particularity was the diffusion [not so important as later mythology will sustain] of religious movements and beliefs about the end of the world in 1000CE.

This said, a part what already listed above, I'm not sure that in his first 20 years of life he was so influential, but historically we can remind that Avicenna was born in X century [980CE].

About Rus, there is who indicates the 968CE as year when a "Russia" was born [with Saint Vladimir].
 
Jan 2016
1,084
Victoria, Canada
#6
The 10th century, in Europe and the Mediterranean, bleeds very thoroughly into the 11th, and many of its events and developments are strongly rooted in the late 9th, so it can be hard to single out characteristically "10th century" trends, events, shifts, and the like. It's perhaps more convenient to talk about a "long tenth century" of sorts from around 880 to 1030 AD, some of the key developments of which would include, in no particular order:

-- The final collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate as a polity

-- The final collapse of the Carolingian order

-- The rise of the Fatimids

-- The resurgence of Andalusia

-- The rise of the Kievan Rus

-- The founding of Hungary

-- The decline of viking raids and Christianization of Scandinavia, the West Slavs, Hungary and the Rus

-- The birth of Normandy and the Normans

-- The solidification of Muslim rule over Sicily

-- The unification of England

-- The founding of Poland

-- The resurgence of the Roman Empire, and accompanying (re-)conquest of Crete, the boot of Italy, Armenia, Cilicia, northern Syria, and eastern-central Balkans

-- The rise of the first wave of Italian merchant republics

-- The unification of Georgia

-- The founding and solidification of the German Empire/"HRE", with an accompanying reestablishment of Papal stability and authority

-- The rise of the Capet Dynasty in what would eventually become France

-- The founding of the Kingdom of Croatia

In general, it was a time of consolidation, imperial expansion, and Christianization, seeing many more fragmented regions either unify into singular political units or be subsumed into larger Empires. It was also one of increasing economic activity, trade, population growth, technological innovation, literary and intellectual development, and artistic/architectural production & innovation almost across the board, in addition to general and increasing stability outside of a few particular conflict zones. The greater part of the myriad political, social, and cultural developments of the high middle ages can be traced to this period, as well as a great many important nations of the modern day in their unified and distinct political forms, including but not limited to England, Georgia, Hungary, Poland, and Russia/Ukraine.
 
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Willempie

Ad Honorem
Jul 2015
4,896
Netherlands
#7
What is interesting (if you find stuff like that interesting) is that in that century the areas that could avoid control of the easter and western Frankish empire (basically the old middle Frankish kingdom) started doing so. Mainly due to being uninteresting or remote (the low countries) or because the other kingdom might feel threatened (Elzas). However the written sources on that period are scarce to use an understatement.
 
Nov 2010
7,513
Cornwall
#8
What is interesting (if you find stuff like that interesting) is that in that century the areas that could avoid control of the easter and western Frankish empire (basically the old middle Frankish kingdom) started doing so. Mainly due to being uninteresting or remote (the low countries) or because the other kingdom might feel threatened (Elzas). However the written sources on that period are scarce to use an understatement.
This is how what is now Catalonia came into being. At the time a collection of mostly small kingdoms or 'counties'. Part of the Carolingian Empire with the creation of the Spanish March over 100 years earlier, they gradually came to realise that the Franks were gradually unable to project any power and therefore defend the area from the anarchy of the 9th century and later the power of the Caliphate, ultimtely under Almanzor when Barcelona was razed and any unescaped population carried off into slavery. The formation of the Spanish March by Charlemagne had suited the politics of both him and Cordoba and eliminated a lot of local difficulties. The removal of one of those elements therefore led to change
 
Nov 2010
7,513
Cornwall
#9
-- The resurgence of Andalusia

.
Small point of order. Andalusia is a present day Comunidad of Spain. Al Andalus was a sort of projection of islam in the west, directly a Province under the original arab empire and later the Almoravids and Almohads.

Or also a romantic vision of things past now lost

The 9th and 10th centuries was sort of independent, the Emirate then Caliphate of Cordoba. Which extended into 'Morocco' and there was a sort of competitive zone in the east where tribes were subject the influences of both Cordoba and the Fatimids, without either formally including it
 

Rodger

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
5,645
US
#10
Early in the 10th century was the collapse of Great Moravian. Some speculate that the Piasts, who founded Poland at the end of the 10th century, were refugees from Great Moravia. The Fall of Great Moravia was due to the presence of the Magyars, who stepped up their conquest in the region in the 10th century. In the Holy Roman Empire, the Ottonian dynasty begins and this leads to an expansion of its borders and influence, including the payment of tribute from peoples and tribes such as the Polabians.
 

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