What Were the Longest Lasting Dynasties In Europe?


Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
A lot would depend in how you define "dynasty". Lots of nobles in Europe will say their pedigree stretches back to some Hero or a Norse God. Dynasty rules varied from one country to another as well.

Definition of dynasty
plural dynasties
1 : a succession of rulers of the same line of descent (see descent 1a) a dynasty that ruled China for nearly 300 years
2 : a powerful group or family that maintains its position for a considerable time born into a powerful political dynasty a baseball dynasty

noun, plural dy·nas·ties.
a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group:
the Ming dynasty.
the rule of such a sequence.
a series of members of a family who are distinguished for their success, wealth, etc.
1A line of hereditary rulers of a country.

‘the Tang dynasty’
More example sentencesSynonyms
1.1 A succession of people from the same family who play a prominent role in business, politics, or another field.
‘the Guinness dynasty’

In my opinion a dynasty is a group of agnatic descendants of the founder of the dynasty. Those are men descended in the male line from the founder of the dynasty. If the succession law permits females to inherit the throne the descendants of those females are members of whatever dynasties the husbands of those females belong to.

For example, King William-Alexander of the Netherlands is usually listed as a member of the House of Orange-Nassau, but is a member of the Amsberg family of his father Claus von Amsberg.

King William-Alexander's mother former Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands is usually described as a member of the House of Orange-Nassau, but is a member of the Lippe-Biesterfeld Dynasty of her father Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld.

Queen Beatrix's mother former Queen Juliana of the Netherlands is usually described as a member of the House of Orange-Nassau, but was a member of the Mecklenburg-Schwerin Dynasty of her father Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

The last actual member of the dynasty of Orange-Nassau to reign in the Netherlands was Queen Juliana's mother Queen Wilhelmina who abdicated in 1948.

Since most European monarchies have changed their succession laws to absolute primogeniture in which the oldest child, whether male or female, inherits the throne (Sweden in 1980, the Netherlands in 1983, Noway in 1990, Belgium in 1991, Denmark in 2009, Luxembourg in 2011, and the United Kingdom and 15 other kingdoms were Elizabeth II reigns in 2015), and since the oldest child is about equally likely to be male or female, the dynasties ruling those monarchies should change about once every two generations.

But there have been and are dynasties where the membership passes only through females.

If the succession is expected to pass through females, then the members of the dynasty are descended in female lines from mother to daughter to granddaughter to great granddaughter, etc. Sometimes only men can inherit, but only through their mothers' families, and sometimes only women can inherit the throne, and only through their mother' families. And those are dynasties where the membership is through females.

It is common to think of the first five emperors as the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, but according to my definition they were more like two or three interwoven dynasties.

Gaius Octavius was more or less adopted by Gaius Julius Caesar and eventually became the first emperor, Augustus. Emperors Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius were members of the Claudian family. Nero was a member of the Domitius family but was adopted by Claudiua. That makes three families. What makes the emperors "Julian" are the facts that Augustus was an adoptive Julian, Tiberius was adopted by Augustus, and Tiberius adopted his nephew Germanicus, Caligula's father and and Nero's mother's father. Caligula and Nero were also descended from Augustus through his daughter Julia Caesaris.

By Roman law Augustus, Tiberius, and Caligula were Julians, and Claudius and Nero were Claudians (though Claudius and Nero included Caesar in their names) but by biology Augustus was Octavian in the male line, tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius were Claudians in the male line, and Nero was Domitian in the male line.

So I tend to think of the Julio-Claudians as being members of three families or dynasties, the gens Octavia, the gens Claudia, and the gens Domitia.

So that is my definition of a dynasty.


Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
I gave my definition of a dynasty in my post # 11.

Emperor of Wurrtemburg, in his post # 5, gave a list of European candidates.

A dynasty's meaning is open to interpretation. Do you mean direct descendants or direct male heirs who keep the family name?

Assuming you mean the latter scrolling down the list on wikipedia it seems to be the following.

Kievan Russ-Rurik almost 750 years, they look like they are our winners
Wittlesbach-around 700 years depending on when you consider their rule to have ended
Austria-Hapsburgs 640 years
Brandenburg-Hohenzollers 550 years
Bohemia-Premyslid's about 500 years
Netherlands-Orange-Nassau 488 years(still around)
Denmark-Olbenburg 415 years
Prussia-Hohenzollern 400 years
Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia-Hapsburgs about 390 years
France-Capetians-about 350 years with another century or so of disputed rule with the Carolingians beforehand.
Scotland-Stuart-almost 350 years
England-Plantagenets- if we count the War of the Roses they are the longest lasting English dynasty at a little under 350 years
Russia-Romanov's-a little over 300 years
Hungary-Arpad-300 years
Here I put the dynasties that Emperor of Wurrtemburg listed with more accurate lengths of reign. Note that there are many other European dynasties that ruled long enough to be on this list.

12) Allegedly around 700 years. Actually 738 or 113 years. At least 946 years of family history.

The House of Wittlesbach were kings of Bavaria for 113 years from 1805 to 1918, and Dukes of Bavaria for 625 years from 1180 to 1805, or for a total of 738 years. The House of Wittlesbach goes back to Otto I, Count of Scheyern, who died 1072, 946 years ago.

11) 488 years of rule claimed - 367, 349, 135, or 133 years actual. Part of a family that lasted for 925 years.

It is claimed that the House of Orange-Nassau has ruled the Netherlands for 488 years until now. But when Queen Wilhelmina abdicated in 1948 she was the last member of the House of Orange-Nassau to reign in the Netherlands. All later monarchs have been members of other dynasties.

Furthermore, the House of Orange-Nassau only ruled the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1815, and the Principality of the Netherlands from 1813, for 1333 or 135 years. Members of the Dynasty were hereditary stadtholders (sort of like kings, presidents, governors or generals) of the United Netherlands for 48 years from 1747 to 1795. Before that various members of the dynasty were chosen as stadtholders of some or all of the Untied Provinces of the Netherlands on and off for 166 years from 1581 to 1747.

So the House of Orange-Nassau ruled or reigned in the Netherlands on and off for about 349 years during the 367 years from 1581 to 1948.

The House of Orange-Nassau became extinct when King William III died in 1890 and his daughter Queen Wilhelmina died in 1962. It was a branch of the house of Nassau, whose earliest known agnatic ancestor was Dudo, Count of Laurenburg (c. 1060-1123). The last male of the House of Nassau was Grand Duke William IV of Luxembourg who died in 1912 and the last member of the House of Nassau was his last surviving daughter Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg who died in 1985, about 925 years after the birth of Dudo.

10) Allegedly a little over 300 years of rule. Actually 146 or 304 years of rule, 415 or 910 years of family history.

The Romanov dynasty is related to several other Russian noble families, being descended from a boyar named Andrei Koblya abut 1347, about 671 years ago and 415 years before the death of the last Romanov. Andre's son Fedor was nicknamed "Koshka", and his descendants were surnamed Koshkin, then Zakharin. The Zakharin-Yuriev branch eventually changed the surname to Romanov.

The Romanovs actually ruled Russia for 112 years from 1613-1725, 13 years from 1727-1740 (Peter II & Anna), and 21 years from 1741-1762 (Elizabeth), a total of 146 years spread out over 149 years. For months in 1762, and for 121 years from 1796 to 1918 the "Romanov" rulers were actually member of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorph, a branch of the House of Oldenburg, founded by Elimar I who flourised about 1108, about 910 years ago.

9) Allegedly 392 years of rule. Actually 254 years of rule.

The Habsburgs inherited the Kingdoms of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia in 1526 and were deposed in 1918, after 392 years of rule.

Of course Emperor Charles VI, the last male Habsburg, died in 1740 after 214 years of Habsburg rule, and his daughter Maria Theresa died in 1780 after 254 years of Habsburg rule. Maria Theresa's son Joseph II was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine that ruled for 138 more years.

8) 331 years of rule and at least 986 years of family history.

Plantagent dynasty. Ruled England from 1154 to 1485, 331 years. The agnatic ancestry goes back to Fulcruich, Count of Mortagne, who died before 1032, and the Somerset family of the Duke of Beaufort claims ilegitimate agnatic Plantagent ancestry.

7) 341 years of rule, 393 years of father to son succession with 14 successions.

The direct Capetians had 329 years of rule over France with succession from father to oldest surviving son From Hugh Capet in 987 to John I, who ruled for five days as the posthumous son of Louis X, plus 12 more years of rule by two brothers of Louis X until 1328.

Hugh Capet, the first direct Capetian king, was the oldest son of Hugh the Great, Duke of France. Hugh the Great was the only son of King Robert I (died 923), who however was a younger brother of King Odo.

Thus this family had 393 years of father to son succession over 14 successions. No wonder the succession rule was uncertain when Jean I died without children in 1316.

6) 343 years of rule, at least about 990 years of family history.

The Stewart or Stuart family is descended from the hereditary stewards of the Kingdom of Scotland. They were kings of Scotland for 343 years from 1371 to 1714, and of England from 1603-1714, with brief interruptions in the Civil Wars. Walter fitz Alan was the first Steward of Scotland. His father Alan Fitz Flaad (c. 1078-after 1121) was a Breton knight who moved to England, the son and nephew of stewards of the Bishop of Dol in Brittany. Many nonroyal branches of the Stewart family exist today, about 990 years after the birth of their earliest known agnatic ancestor.

5) About 451 years of rule and of family history.

Arpad Dynasty. Almos reigned from about 850 to about 895. His son Arpad led the tribes of the Magyars into Hungary about 895. Stephen I was crowned the first king of Hungary in 100/1001, and King Andrew III, the last male member of the Arpad Dynasty, died in 1301.

4) Allegedly 640 years. actually 640 years, 636 years, or 498 years. Family history for at least 807 years (Habsburg), or for about 981 to 1,205 years (Lorraine).

Rudolf I, King of the Romans, took control of Austria in 1278. In 1282 he granted it as a fief to his sons Albert and Rudolf. The last male Habsburg, Charles VI, died in 1740, 458 years later, and the last female Habsburg, Maria Theresa, died in 1780, 498 years later. Austria was ruled by Maria Theresa's descendants of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine for 138 years from 1780-1918, for a total of 636 years since 1282 and 640 years since 1278.

The first count of Habsburg was Ratbod (died by 1045), son of Landolt, son of Guntram the Rich (died after 973). So the House of Habsburg lasted for over 807 years. Ratbod had a brother Lancelin who was allegedly the ancestor of the House of Zahgringen, who were rulers of Baden from 806 years from 1112 to 1918. The House of Zahringen still survives as possible distant cousins of the Habsburgs after at least 1,045 years.

According to a genealogical legend, the House of Habsburgs and the House of Colonna were cousins, being descended from the Counts of Tusculum and from the Julio-Claudian emperors.

According to another genealogical legend, the House of Habsurg and the House of Lorraine were cousins, having a common ancestor centuries before their earliest known ancestors.

In any case, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is descended from Dukes of Upper Lorraine since Adalbert in 1047. Thus they ruled Lorraine from 1047-1431, 1473-1634, 1697-1737, a total of about 585 years spread over a span of 690 years. The ancestors of Adalbert go back at least to his grandfather Adalbert (died 1037) and may go back to Liuthard who died in or after 813.

3) Ruled for 503 years, were monarchs for 217 years, and have 907, 957, or 988 years of family history.

The Hohenzollern Dynasty ruled Brandenburg for 503 years, ruled east Prussia for 393 years, were kings of Prussia for 217 years, and German emperors for 47 years. Their earliest known ancestor may be Count Frederick of Zollern mentioned 1111, Burchard of Zollern died 1061, or Rudolf Count of Zollern mentioned in 1030. Thus the family has 907, 957, or 988 years of history.

3) Brandenburg - Hohenzollern. Allegedly 550 years of rule. Actually ruled for 503 years in Brandenburg from 1415 to 1918. (duplicate)

2) ruled 570 years, or 415 years, or 340 years without a succession dispute or usurpation. 910 years of family history -1,569 according to dubious legends.

The House of Oldenburg ruled Denmark since Count Christian I of Oldenburg, among the closest relatives of previous kings, was elected King of Denmark in 1448. His grandson King Christian II was deposed in 1523 by his uncle King Frederick I. The Danish throne then passed without usurpation or succession disputes for 340 years until 1863. From Christian III, son of Frederick I, in 1533 to Frederick VI in 1808 all 10 successions over 275 years were from father to son.

In 1863 a distant cousin belonging to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg became King Christian XI of Denmark. But the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg is a branch of the house of Oldenburg, descended from King Christian III. Thus branches of the house of Oldenburg have ruled Denmark for 570 years and will continue to do so until the current crown prince begins a new dynasty.

The earliest known agnatic ancestor of the House of Oldenburg is Count Elimar I of Oldenburg, mentioned in 1108, 910 years ago. Legend claims that Elimar was descended from Wittikind who flourished from 777 to 785, 1,233 to 1,2 years ago, and an even less probable legend claims that Wittikind was descended from Hengist, the first Saxon invader of Britain, mentioned in 473, 465, 457, 455, and 449 in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle thus having an extremely dubious genealogy going back 1,569 years.

1) Allegedly almost 750 years. Actually ruled about 646 to 748 years. 1,072 to 1,156 years of family history.

The Rurik Dynasty supposedly ruled Kievian Rus, Muscovy, and Russia for more than 700 years. Rurik supposedly began to rule in 862 before dying in 879. His alleged son Igor was a historical ruler who died in 944/46. Thus Rurikids ruled Russia for about 642 to 736 years from sometime in the period 862 to 946 to the death of Tsar Feodor I in 1598, and again for 4 years 1606-1610 in the reign of Vasili IV Shuyskiy. That is 646 to 740 years over a span of 664 to 748 years.

Since various branches of the Rurik dynasty still exist, that is 1,072 to 1,156 years of family history.

Russian genealogical legends claimed that Augustus, the first Emperor, had a relative named Prusas, (he did have relatives named Drusus) who he appointed lord of a region called Prussia after him (Old Prussia). Prusas was supposedly the ancestor of Rurik.

The Romanovs also had an alleged Old Prussian ancestry. The first known Romanov ancestor, Andrei Kobyla, was allegedly the son of an Old Prussian Prince Glanda Kambila, who fled from invading Germans to Russia in the late 13th century, and might be supposed to be a relative of Rurik.

Note that there are many other European dynasties that ruled long enough to be on this list.

Here the dynasties are listed in order of length of family history until extinction or the present. Note that there are many other European dynasties with family histories long enough to be on this list:

12) Romanov family. About 415 years from 1347-1762.

11) Arpad Dynasty. About 451 years from 850-1301

10) Habsburg. 807 years from 973-1780.

9) Hohenzollern. 907, 957, or 988 years.

8) Oldenburg (later Romanov and Glucksburg) 910 years.

7) Nassau. About 925 years from about 1020 to 1985.

6) Wittlesbach. 946 years.

5) Lorraine and Habsburg-Lorraine. 981 to 1,205 years.

4) Plantagenet dynasty. 986 years.

3) The Stewart or Stuart Dynasty, at least about 990 years of family history.

2) The Rurik Dynasty. 1,072 to 1,156 years.

1) The Capetian Dynasty - 1,158 to 1,203 years of family history. The dynasty, all its many branches, has ruled many countries on and off for 1,130 years from 888 to the present. Their earliest certain ancestor was Robert the Strong, Count of Paris, c. 815/30-866, thus giving the Capetians 1,158 to 1,203 years of family history.

Note that there are many other European dynasties with family histories long enough to be on this list.
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Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
Another allegedly long ruling European dynasty was the Fairhair Dynasty.

King Harold the Fairhaired conquered other petty kingdoms in Norway and is said to have ruled all Norway after his final victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, traditionally dated to 872. King Haakon V of Norway died in 1319 without sons, ending the dynasty, though he had two daughters who married and have descendants to this day.

Thus the Fairhair Dynasty ruled Norway for about 447 years.

Except that some modern historians suggest that it didn't. They suggest that the various branches of the Fairhair Dynasty were actually separate dynasties founded by imposters or by men who never claimed in their own lifetimes to be descended from King Harold the Fairhaired.

For example, it is uncertain if King Haakon IV (1204-1263) really was the illegitimate son of King Haakon III (1182-1204), though it is considered probable.

It is considered much less likely that King Sverre (c.1145/1151-1202) was actually the illegitimates son of King Sigurd II (1133-1155), so Sverre's descendants are called the Sverre Dynasty.

It is unknown whether King Harold IV Gille (died 1136) was really the illegitimate son of King Magnus II Barefoot (1073-1103), so the descendants of Harold are called the Gille Dynasty.

King Harold III Hardrada (c. 1015-1066) claimed the Norwegian throne as the half brother of King St. Olaf II, but the claim that Harold III was descended from Harold Fairhair was first made generations later. So the descendants of Harold III are called the Hardrada Dynasty.

King St. Olaf II (c.995-1030) claimed descent from Harold the Fairhaired, but it is uncertain whether that was true. His descendants are called the St. Olav Dynasty.

King Olaf I (960s-100) Tryggvason was said to be a descendant of Harold the Fairhaired, but modern historians are doubtful.

So many historians believe that the last king who was a member of the Fairhair Dynasty was Harold II Greycloak who died about 970.

So that makes the Fairhair dynasty last only about 100 years from about 872 to about 970 if skeptical historians are correct.

Which is a shame because the ancestors of Harold I the Fairhaired, that skeptical modern historians are even more skeptical about, would be very interesting and would make the Fairhair dynasty a mere branch of a much older dynasty, the Yingling Dynasty.

The Heimskringla of Snorri Sturluson, written c. 1230, tells how the Norse God Odin was actually a man, a great king, warrior and wizard, who ruled in Asgard somewhere in modern Russia east of the Don River. In the time of the Romans Odin lead many of his people in a migration to northern Europe and settled in Sweden. Odin died and was succeeded by Njord, who was succeeded by Njord's son Frey, who was also called Yngve, so his descendnts were called the Yinglings.

Generation after generation of the Yinglings ruled at Uppsala in Sweden, until King Ingiald Illrada was overthrown by Ivar the Wide Famed. Ingiald's descendants moved west into Norway and after generations Harold the fairhared conquered all Norway.

OMACL: Heimskringla: The Ynglinga Saga

The Prose Edda, also by Snorri Sturluson, gives the Yinglings an even higher ancestry, because it says that Yngve was the son of Odin, and ancestor of the Yinglings. And it gives the ancestry of Odin back for many generations to Tror or Thor, son of Mennon and Troan, daughter of King Priamos of Troy.

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Sep 2018
Hengist and Horsa, in a family tree?
Over the last 200 years about a dozen governments would have had you arrested for such a contemptuous statement toward the reigning Royal and Imperial house. I say with a wink and smile though most say it's legend it was in ancient days settled matters of international law, like much of the Saxon Heptarchy was.
Sep 2018
The "d'Este-Guelph" Brunswick Dynasty is the longest reigning Dynasty. Though today are de jure sovereigns in international law, with a provisional government in exile. The male Este line is documented from 300BC till today, in the senior house of Brunswick. The Guelph line goes back to Charlemagne, though is a female line. Numerous books documenting the line from that time till today are available. Also on welfen.de it is somewhat documented "sind nachweislich das älteste Fürstenhaus in Europa" "are demonstrably the oldest princely house in Europe". The Imperial Sword was made for Brunswick, and Guelphs (Brunswick Royals) have the strongest claim to the crown of Charlemagne, although had many Imperial wars against the Hapsburg Ghibellines.
Note that Welf is just an alternate spelling for Guelph. The house d'Este-Guelph [Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels] is a matter of currently valid de jure sovereignty in international law. Numerous governments also stood by the Agnates of Charles II to be the head of this Royal and Imperial House, who are rightful heirs today, although he was exiled to die in Geneva. Still his heirs were recognized in the rightful legal circles, regardless of the fake news, or the rivalry with the junior branch known as Hanover, or their illegal pacts with prussia. Each were protested in a valid way from the exiled Imperial government in Geneva.

You can read about many of the past and present titles of this most ancient and longest reigning princely family here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Welf


Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
The length of rule of some Irish dynasties.

There were many kingdoms in medieval Ireland, and there was a sort of hierarchy of kingdoms in several levels up to - at some periods - the High King of all Ireland. And there is much more that could be written that might be controversial or uncertain.

I find that the Regnal Chronologies website lists the kings of several different Irish kingdoms, that seem like a minority of the total number of Irish kingdoms. The kingdoms selected might include the most important kingdoms.


There are several assumptions made about the length of dynasties in this grouping by length of dynasty.

Assumption one) Each kingdom lasted for about as long as the period that Regnal Chronologies lists monarchs for that kingdom. In some cases the kingdom might be claimed in some sources to have been founded decades, centuries, or even up to about 1,500 years before the first king listed in Regnal Chronologies. But I am asuming that the sources used by Regnal Chronologies made an effort to identify the first historically proven king of each kingdom and that it is reasonable to think that the more or less valid history of each kingdom begins at approximately the date that Regnal Chronologies starts listing kings for that kingdom. After the Kingdom of Ireland was proclaimed in 1542 the English-led government started a policy where Irish kings surrendered their kingdoms to the crown and were regranted them as peerages, the attraction being those peerages would descend from father to son among the descendants of the first holder instead of by Irish succession laws.

Assumption two) That one dynasty ruled each kingdom for the total length of the kingdom.

So here are a small group of Irish kingdoms ranked by duration.

39) About 30 years. Kingdom of Ressad. About 30 years from about 950 to 980.

38) 61 years. Kingdom of Ireland, Tudor Dynasty. 61 years. Proclaimed 1542, until death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603.

37) 86 years. Kingdom of Ireland, Guelf or Hanoverian Dynasty. 86 years. From 1714 to 1800. Merged with Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1801.

36) About 106 years. Kingdom of Sliabh Lugha in Connacht. About 106 years from about 1150 to 1256.

35) 111 years. Kingdom of Ireland, Stuart Dynasty. 111 years. From 1603-1714.

34) 133 years. Kingdom of Limerick. A Norse kingdom. 133 years from 845 to 978.

33) 159 years. Kingdom of Waterford. A Norse kingdom. 159 years from 891 to about 1050.

32) 174 years. Kingdom of Brega. 174 years from 604 to 778. Sil n'Aedo Slaine branch of the Southern Ui Niall Dynasty. Split into two kingdoms in 778.

31) 178 years. Kingdom of Cnogba or North Brega. At least 178 years from 778 to 956 or later. Sil n'Aedo Slaine branch of the Southern Ui Niall Dynasty.

30) 235 years. Kingdom of Lagore or South Brega. 235 years from 778 to 1013.

29) 310 years. Kingdom of Dal nAraidi in Ulster. 310 years from 588 to 898.

28) 314 years. Kingdom of Dublin, founded by vikings. 314 years from 856 to 1170.

27) 345 years. Kingdom of Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. 345 years from 1264 to 1609. Maguire Dynasty.

26) 379 years. Kingdom of Ui Mhain in western Ireland. At least 379 years from before 1221 to 1600 or later.

25) About 388 years. Kingdom of Iarmhumhain in Munster. About 388 years from about 450 to 838. Eoganacht Locha Lein Dynasty.

24) 393 years. Kingdom of Conaille Miurthemne in Ulster. 393 years from 688-1081.

23) 421 years. Kingdom of Thomond. 421 years from 1118 to 1539. Split off from Munster in 1118.

22) 431 years. Lordship of Clonlonan and titular kingdom of Meath. 431 years from 1173 to 1604. founded by a branch of the Southern Ui Neill Dynasty of Meath, and thus the 431 years should be added to the 723 years of Meath for a total of 1,154 years.

20) 452 years. Kingdom of East Briefne. 452 years from 1162 to 1603. O'Reilley Dynasty.

19) 453 years. Kingdom of Briefne (Breffny). 453 years from 1152 to 1605. O'Rourke Dynasty.

18) 466-549 years. Kingdom of Ui Failghe or Offaly. 466 to 549 years from 1051 to 1517 to 1600. O'Connor Faly Dynasty.

17) 478 years. Kingdom of Desmond in Munster. 478 years from the division of Munster in 1118 to 1596. MacCarthy Dynasty.

16) 523 years. Kingdom of Ui Cheinnselaig in Leinster. 523 years from 483 to 1006. A branch of the Laigin.

15) 603 years. Kingdom of Ui Diarmata in Galway. 603 years from 971 to 1574. Ua Con Ceanainn or Concannon Dynasty.

14) 626 years. Kingdom of Ossory between Munster and Leinster. 626 years from 550 to 1176 . MacGillapadraigh Dynasty. Their descendants use the surnames FitzPatrick and Gilpatrick.

13) 629 years. Kingdom of Magh Luirg in Connacht. 629 years from 956 to 1585. Mac Diarmata or McDermott Dynasty.

12) About 668 years. Kingdom of Munster. About 668 years from about 450 to 1118. Split into kingdoms of Desmond and Thomond in 1118.

11) 723 years. Kingdom of Meath. About 723 years from c. 450 to 1173. The southern Ui Neill Dynasty.

10) 723 years. Kingdom of Uisneth in Meath. about 723 years from c. 450 to 1173. Clann Cholmain of The southern Ui Neill Dynasty.

9) 774 years. Kingdom of Eile in Munster. 774 years from to 669-1443. (used the title of Lord of Ely from before 1318 and thus used the title of king for less than 649 years.)

8) 830 years. Kingdom of Ui Mailli. 830 years from 773 to 1603. Ui Mailli or O'Malley Dynasty.

7) 848 years. Kingdom of Oriel in Ulster. 848 years from about 330 to 1178.

6) About 1,040 years. Connacht or Connaught. About 1,040 years from about 450 to 1490.

5) 1,143 years. Kingdom of Tryconnell in Ulster. 1,143 years from 464 to 1607.

4) 1,154 years. The Kingdom of Meath, about 723 years from about 450 to 1173, and the Lordship of Clonlonan founded by a member of the dynasty, 431 years from 1173 to 1604 for a total of 1,154 years.

3) About 1,157 years. Kingdom of Aileach (Tyrone) in Ulstar. About 1,157 years from about 450 to 1607. Ui Niall or O'Neill Dynasty.

2) 1,167 years. Kingdom of Leinster. 1,167 years from 436 to 1603.

1) 1,553 years. Kingdom of Ulster. 1,553 years from 353 BC to AD 1200. I am not sure if there is any good reason for putting the beginning of Ulster so many centuries before the beginning of other main Irish kingdoms. No doubt the other main Irish kingdoms also had legendary histories going back to 353 BC and far earlier.
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Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
Republika Srpska
Well, if we count Georgia as Europe (and according to some definitions, it is in Europe), then the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty certainly comes to mind. If we start with Ashot I Kouropalates, the first Bagrationi to ascend to the throne of Caucasian Iberia in the early 9th century and end with Solomon II of Imereti who was deposed by Russia in 1810, we get almost a 1,000 years of rule over various Georgian states.


Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
Well, if we count Georgia as Europe (and according to some definitions, it is in Europe), then the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty certainly comes to mind. If we start with Ashot I Kouropalates, the first Bagrationi to ascend to the throne of Caucasian Iberia in the early 9th century and end with Solomon II of Imereti who was deposed by Russia in 1810, we get almost a 1,000 years of rule over various Georgian states.
Except that the Bagrationi dynasty is more like three dynasties, and the later two dynasties may have used the name Bagrationi but were Bagrationi only only in the same loose sense that the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty was Habsburg, or in the sense that Charles, Prince of Wales and his mother Queen Elizabeth II are both considered members of the House of Windsor.

In 813 Prince Ashot I Bagrationi became the hereditary presiding prince of Georgia. In 888 Prince Adernase IV became King Adernase I of Iberia. In 1008 KIng Bagrat III of Abkhazia became king of all Georgia. In 1810 the last Bagrationi kingdom was annexed by Russia. 1810 was 802 years after Bagrat III became king of all Georgia, 922 years after Adernase I became king of Iberia, and 997 years after Ashot I became Presiding Prince of Georgia. And over a thousand years after the first Bagrationi became a prince in Georgia.

But Queen of Kings Tamar the Great ruled Georgia from 1184 to 1213, and the later Bagrationi are descended in the agnatic (male) line from her husband, David Soslan from Alania. Thus one could say that the Bagrationi Dynasty only ruled Georgia for 400 years from 813 to 1213 and that the dynasty of David Soslan ruled George for 597 years from 1213 to 1810.

Some of the later "Bagrationi" are descended in the male line from Tamar and David's son King of Kings George IV (ruled 1213-1223) and so are members of David Soslan's dynasty, while another branch of the later "Bagrationi" were descended from Tamar and David's daughter Queen of Kings Rusudan (ruled 1223-1245) and so are members of her husband's dynasty. Rusudan's husband Ghias ad-din was a Seljuk Turk, the son of Tughril Shah, the Emir of Erzurum, a son of Kilij Arslan II, Sultan of Rum (Rome) from 1156 to 1192. Which means that the Seljuk Dynasty survived in the Christian Georgian descendants of Rusudan and Ghias ad-din for centuries after the last known Seljuk ruler. Curiously, Sultan Kilij Arslan II claimed in 1172 to have some Christian Russian and German ancestors.

"As Arnold of Lübeck reports in his Chronica Slavorum, he was present at the meeting of Henry the Lion with Kilij-Arslan during the former's pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1172. When they met near Tarsus, the sultan embraced and kissed the German duke, reminding him that they were blood cousins ('amplexans et deosculans eum, dicens, eum consanguineum suum esse'). When the duke asked for details of this relationship, Kilij Arslan informed him that 'a noble lady from the land of Germans married a king of Russia who had a daughter by her; this daughter's daughter arrived to our land, and I descend from her.' "

Kilij Arslan II - Wikipedia

Anyway, the "Bagrationi-Soslan Dynasty" and the "Bagrationi-Seljuk Dynasty" ruled different parts of Georgia for over 150 years after the division in 1247 between David VI, son of Rusudan and Ghias ad-din, and David VII, son of George IV, until 1401, when Demetrius, descendant of Ghias ad-din, became the heir of the Kingdom of Imereti but was conquered and captured before becoming king. in 1412 he became Duke of Imereti and reigned as a vassal of the king of Georgia until he died in 1455.

After decades of civil wars between members of the royal family, a council in 1490 divided Georgia into a main kingdom of Kartli and smaller kingdoms of Kakheti and Imereti.

It has been claimed that Bagrat VI (r. 1465-1478), the ancestor of the later kings of Imereti, was a son of Duke Demetrius of Imereti. This would mean that the house of Bagrationi-Seljuk continued to rule until 1810, and that the House of Bagrationi of the Imeretinsky branch are the only known agnatic descendants of the Seljuk dynasty, and thus could make some sort of claim to be the rightful Sultans of Rum (Rome).

But it is now believed that Bagrat VI and his Imeretinsky descendants are a branch of the Bagrationi-Soslan Dynasty. It is now believed that Bagrat VI was a grandson of King Constantine I of Georgia.

If that is correct the heir of the Bagrationi-Seljuk dynasty through female lines would be Demetrius's sister Tamar, who married King Alexander I of Georgia and was the mother of George VIII, king of Georgia from 1446 to 1465, and King of Kakheti 1465 to 1476. His heirs through the kings of Kakheti are the princes of Bagration-Gruzinsky who I suppose could make some sort of claim to be the rightful Sultans of Rum (Rome).

It should be easy to use genetic testing on the different branches of the Bagrationi to see if the Bagrationi-Imeretinsky members have the same Y chromosome, passed down from father to son to grandson and so on, as the members of the other Bagrationi branches. If that is the case the Bagrationi-Imeretinsky branch must also be descended from David Soslan in the male line. and not descended from Ghias ad-din in the male line. But if they have a different Y chromosome, they might be descended in the male line from Ghias ad-din, and thus be Bagrationi-Seljuks.

As for the Dynasty of Bagrationi-Soslan, it is possible that it is actually a pure Bagrationi Dynasty. It has been claimed that David Soslan was descended in the male line from King George I of Georgia, (reigned 1014-1027), and was a fourth cousin of King of Kings George III of Georgia (reigned 1156-1184), the father of his wife Queen of Kings Tamar. If this story is correct the agnatic descendants of David Soslan are also agnatic Bagrationi.

And the only way I know to find if this is true is to compare the Y chromosomes of descendants of David Soslan with those of deceased early members of the Bagrationi Dynasty. Until and unless that is done it will probably be uncertain for how long the agnatic Batrationi Dynasty ruled Georgia.

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