- May 2014
Worthy of note is how French largely replaced the regional languages in Brittany, Provence, Alsace, Gascony and other areas. Much of this was done in the last 200 years.
In contrast, there was majority literacy in Latvia and Estonia even in 1897--with the situation very likely being even more favorable to literacy there by 1917:
The map right above shows that Latvia and Estonia were some of the most literate territories in the Russian Empire in 1897.