Which countries expelled and/or killed members of minority groups en masse after they acquired independence?

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
22,239
SoCal
Which countries expelled and/or killed members of minority groups en masse after they acquired independence? I know that Haiti massacred its white population in 1804 and that the Algerian FLN gave the pieds-noirs the option of the "suitcase or the coffin" after Algeria acquired independence in 1962--thus causing the pieds-noirs and also Algerian Jews to flee Algeria en masse (though I'm unsure if the expulsion of the Algerian Jews was also an official Algerian FLN policy since they actually tried to appeal to Algerian Jews in their independence struggle in the 1950s). I also know that Ugandan dictator Idi Amin expelled Uganda's Indian population in 1972. I guess that the effects of the partition of India can be included in this list--especially the ethnic cleansing of Hindus and Sikhs from the western Punjab and the ethnic cleansing of Muslims from the eastern Punjab. In both of these cases, this ethnic cleansing was extremely thorough, though I am highly skeptical that it was actually official Indian and Pakistani government policy; it probably wasn't considering that the rest of India and also East Pakistan didn't experience ethnic cleansing to such a massive extent (as in the Punjab) in 1947. Finally, I suppose that the large-scale flight and expulsion of Arabs from Israel in 1947-1949 (and Israel's subsequent unwillingness to allow most of them to return after the war) could also be considered a part of this--though it is worth noting that a sizable number of Arabs actually stayed behind in Israel during this time--especially in the Galilee--and still live in Israel today together with their descendants.

That said, though, which additional cases have there been of countries expelling and/or killing members of minority groups en masse after they acquired independence? Any thoughts on this?
 

Kotromanic

Ad Honorem
Dec 2011
5,008
Iowa USA
The mass killings of members of the Igbo ethnicity in Northern Nigeria during 1966-67 could be an example.
 
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Jul 2019
135
Ghana
I know that Haiti massacred its white population in 1804
An important nuance to make is that they massacred about 3000-5000 French people which included white French as well as French Creoles, but they didn't massacre the "white population"... They left the Spanish and British alone, who sided with the Haitians during the war, and stood by and witnessed the massacres, and the Haitians also left the German and Polish settlers alone, who were actually given citizenship. Not that it's an excuse for genocide or anything, and Jean-Jacques Dessalines definitely made a foolish mistake, but without some context, your one line sentence on the massacre sounds, well, out of context. The Haitians lost 200.000 people in the war, which came on the back of generations of a particularly cruel form of slavery, where slaves were simply worked to death, importing as many as 20.000 slaves a year, because mortality rates were as high as 50%, in addition to systematic torture and rape. It was one of the most profitable French colonies in the world (sugar, coffee and indigo was big business)...
 

Ighayere

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
2,638
Benin City, Nigeria
I know that Haiti massacred its white population in 1804
As I've mentioned on here before this was specifically most (not all) of the white French people. Poles and Germans weren't harmed and were even counted as Haitian ciitzens.
 
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Ighayere

Ad Honorem
Jul 2012
2,638
Benin City, Nigeria
The mass killings of members of the Igbo ethnicity in Northern Nigeria during 1966-67 could be an example.
They weren't and aren't a minority in the Nigerian context. Although in Northern Nigeria specifically I guess they could be seen that way.
 
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Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,634
Republika Srpska
Dramatic as that was, Turkey didn't actually gain independence – unless the Ottoman empire is seen as directly oppressing specifically Turks...
Well, it is called Turkish War of Independence. And Ataturk certainly considered the Ottoman Empire a rotten institution that became a pawn of the foreigners so in a sense, yes, the Turkish Nationalists saw the Ottomans as oppressors.
 

At Each Kilometer

Ad Honorem
Sep 2012
4,004
Bulgaria
Well, it is called Turkish War of Independence. And Ataturk certainly considered the Ottoman Empire a rotten institution that became a pawn of the foreigners so in a sense, yes, the Turkish Nationalists saw the Ottomans as oppressors.
The Turks themselves have different opinions on the matter. Some say that the modern republic was idd a completely new entity without any ties with the empire of the past / others claim that it is exactly the same state and what happened was a change of govn system from monarchy to republic. EDIT: It's worth to mention that the Ottoman government wasnt abolished when the Republic was found / it considered the new parliament in Ankara as enemy and raised the Army of the Caliphate to defeat nationalist forces of the National Assembly in Ankara.
 
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