Which country made best science/technology contribution?

Status
Closed

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
The US did not have vocational training until 1917, and this came about for mostly for military reasons, but industry also wanted trained employees.
Really? I was in junior and senior high in the 50s and 60s and had lots of vocational training in junior and senior high school and did vocational training which I ended up not needing much of. Incidentally, in 1917 the US was still mostly an agricultural nation in terms of overall numbers with a large and thriving industrial development at the same time. Not sure I understand the point about vocational training in which an entire nation was already participating in.
 
Mar 2019
1,446
Kansas
The Germans did not surpass the Allies in any of these things. They were not superior and they were soundly defeated.
Though we should not be dismissive of the things the Germans did innovate well ahead of the allies

MG1942 - Machine gun. So deadly US infantry manual suggested the only way to attack a position was to wait for them to change the barrel

Night vision scopes for rifles

Snorkels for submarines

Conducted the first guided missile attack

First operational jet aircraft.

And invented the first assault rifle.

And finally (just for laughs) a gun that could fire around corners

Krummlauf - Wikipedia
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
(1)Sound recording.
1857 Phonautograph, patented by French typesetter and inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville.
April 1877 Paleophone, Frenchman Charles Cros's designs deposited with French Academy of science, three months before Edison began work and seven months before Edison announced his "invention". the "Gramophone" designed by Emile Berliner using wax disks, essentially used Cros's design
Not a single part of the Edison cylinder device survived the decade apart from the trumpet.

(2)Incandescent Light Bulb
By the time Edison produced his first prototype lightbulb in 1878 such devices had been demonstrated and patented in Britain, France, Russian, Germany, Canada and in America (in 1845).
Even before Edison had a working model, Joseph Swan had not only illuminated his own house in Dundee with incandescent electric bulbs, but also many houses of the rich and famous throughout England. Edison acquired the design and patents of earlier Canadian inventor Henry Woodward legally and illegally copied the designs of Swan and others. Swan sued and won and later sold his business to the Edison Company.
I agree it was probably an Englishman as long as we recognize that lots of scientists in Europe and America were working on this simultaneously. The British were first but they made the same mistake as Edison in working only with direct current. We owe the incandescent AC light bulb to George Westinghouse.and Nikola Tesla.

(3) Thermionic valve (vacuum tube)
Invented by British physicist Frederick Guthrie in 1873. The design was plagarised and patented by Edison's assistant WJ Hammer who did not describe the science. First working model built by Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS (he of the left-hand rule) in 1906 he also built the first cathode ray tube.

(4)Measuring the speed of light.
Hundreds of attempts were made at measuring the speed of light using serious scientific principle from the mid 17thC onwards. Americans Michelson and Morley attempted, in 1885, to prove Frenchman Hippolyte Fizeau's 1851 determination of the speed of light and failed. The definitive speed of light was only determined in 1950 by British physicist Louis Essen.

(5) First heavier than air aircraft.
There were dozens of heavier than air machines, mainly gliders, but some powered, launched in Europe before 1900. While the Wright brothers have been awarded the title of "first mannedpowered flight" for a century, it is now accepted that Gustav Whitehead (a German immigrant to the US) actually achieved the first.
Accepted by whom? Show me the evidence in pictures of Whitehead (a German, by the way) flying his heavier than air powered airplane. Incidentally, we are talking about “powered” flight here, not gliders. Until you can do that with an engine plainly in sight, I don’t believe you and no one else does either. Incidentally, why did so many inventors feel like they had to move to the States to realize their ambitions?

(6) Vulcanisation of Rubber.
Thomas Hancock, a rubber raincoat manufacturer from Wiltshire in England, patented the hot vulcanisation process on 21 November 1843,two months before Goodyear filed his patent. (It is likely that Hancock swiped the idea). Goodyear died in 1860 some 19 years before the first automobile was built in Germany and 38 years before the company named after him began manufacturing bicycle tyres.
The pneumatic tyre was co-invented by John Boyd Dunlop, a Scot living in Belfast and fellow Scot Robert William Thompson. The radial tyre was invented by Michelin in France in 1946.

(7)Far from superior electronic manufacturing, the US, although it had been experimenting with radar for some years (as had all major countries), was a decade or more behind both German & British development in 1940. The Tizard Mission delivered the cavity magnetron, allowing the production of airborne radar and ground stations 1000 times more powerful that existing US designs. The Tizard mission also supplied the designs for the CH & CHL system and despatched Watson-Watt to instruct Americans in radar design and application. The MIT Radiation Laboratory was set up to exploit the various technologies provided as a joint Anglo-American project.
The British were ahead of everyone - including the Germans - in developing radar which a lot of countries were working on.

(8) American Money and resources built the first Atomic Bomb--although over 130,000 people worked directly and some 400,000 indirectly on the project, the scientists numbered less than 200 (plus 1800 engineers). Although many became naturalised citizens, the vast majority were recent arrivals to the US who had competed their education elsewhere or foreign nationals.
Yes, there were people from all over the world who worked on it, but it was an American project, led by American scientists and managers. I doubt any other country could have mobilized for it and built a completed number of bombs before the war’s end in an incredibly short amount of time. Saying “foreigners” also worked on it does nothing to belittle the American effort to produce it.`

(9)Goddard didn't built a working rocket. von Braun did.[/quote]

Wrong. He built a number of them. They just weren’t very large.

God Bless American presumption.
Before WW2 the US did not invest in basic science and technology. Pre Roosevelt they had a small state and universities relied largely on private endowments--the tenor of those endowments may be measured by how few American Nobel Prize winners there were outside of medicine. Pre-WW2, America's strengths were in engineering improvments and, especially, commercialisation and improving manufacturing organisation--possibly the word should be "management".
The Second World War not only showed the US government, but also its industry the importance of science and technology, that, plus the windfall of decades of German, British and other countries' military and commercial research and development turned the US from an "engineering and management" leader into a scientific one.[/QUOTE]
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
Though we should not be dismissive of the things the Germans did innovate well ahead of the allies

MG1942 - Machine gun. So deadly US infantry manual suggested the only way to attack a position was to wait for them to change the barrel

Night vision scopes for rifles

Snorkels for submarines
The snorkel was a Dutch invention that was installed on Dutch submarines. When the Germans saw these subs, they stole the invention.

Conducted the first guided missile attack
Wrong: the missiles - V1 and V2 - weren’t “guided” in any meaningful sense of the word. Broad side of a barn is not guided.

First operational jet aircraft.
The ME262 was not really ahead of the British Gloster Meteor and it was a lot more prone to inflight failure because the Germans needed to rush it into production (despite Hitler’s idiotic meddling). Engines had a very poor running time
I think I might have added that the Germans. Like the British, the Germans could have done it a couple of years earlier for lack of proper funding.

And invented the first assault rifle.

And finally (just for laughs) a gun that could fire around corners

Krummlauf - Wikipedia
The Germans invented the first rocket-powered fighter. It was pretty useless and its fuel was deadly. But they did it and for a brief moment in time, it was operational.
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
Germany.

It were germans who invented practical evrything we use today

- jet engine: Germans did not invent this. Hilarious.
- bike: you mean bicycle? Really?
- glider: Germans didn’t invent the glider. Get real.
- computer (Z1): good lord, the Germans invented the computer. I can’t stop laughing.
- liquid fuel rocket: also wrong. You’re not doing well.
- x-ray: don’t know
- telephone (Reiss): sure, uh huh
- car: well, the Germans did well with cars
- Diesel engine: and “diesel Cheating” as well
- artificial fertilizer
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
Germany.

It were germans who invented practical evrything we use today

- jet engine: Germans did not invent this. Hilarious.
- bike: you mean bicycle? Really?
- glider: Germans didn’t invent the glider. Get real.
- computer (Z1): good lord, the Germans invented the computer. I can’t stop laughing.
- liquid fuel rocket: also wrong. You’re not doing well.
- x-ray: don’t know
- telephone (Reiss): sure, uh huh
- car: well, the Germans did well with cars
- Diesel engine: and “diesel Cheating” as well
- artificial fertilizer
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
Germany.

It were germans who invented practical evrything we use today

- jet engine: Germans did not invent this. Hilarious.
- bike: you mean bicycle? Really?
- glider: Germans didn’t invent the glider. Get real.
- computer (Z1): good lord, the Germans invented the computer. I can’t stop laughing.
- liquid fuel rocket: also wrong. You’re not doing well.
- x-ray: don’t know
- telephone (Reiss): sure, uh huh
- car: well, the Germans did well with cars
- Diesel engine: and “diesel Cheating” as well; diesel is a dirty, unrefinedfeul source.
- artificial fertilizer
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
Fritz Haber invented the Bosch-Haber process which allowed mass production of artificial fertilizer.

2/3 of humanity exist only because of it. It allowed the mass production of food plants in unknown scale.

The theory of relativity done by Einstein.

Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann and Lise Meitner made nuclear power work. Their work is the base for ery civilian and military used nuclear power.

Philipp Reiss who invented the phone long before Bell:

Johann Philipp Reis - Wikipedia

If we go further back we see Gutenberg inventing printing books, which changed forever the way to transmitt knowledge and formed the modern age.

Wernher von Braun, Einstein, Fritz Haber, Otto Hahn, Gottlieb Daimler, Gutenberg, Messerschmitt, Graf Zeppelin

There is no nation in the world that did more for humanity and i´m proud for that
The Germans did just a few things - twenty years apart - that were not so thrilling.
 

royal744

Ad Honoris
Jul 2013
10,485
San Antonio, Tx
The V2 was the first really functional liquid fuel rocket. Was also first man made object reaching the boundary of space.
It is true that the V2 was the first man made object in space. They had no guidance system worthy of the name. Which made it into a rather useless terror weapon.[/quote]

The Z1 is known as first real computer:
lol, humorous., not digital, basically an electro-mechanical concoction.
Messerschmitt was first real jet aircraft:
not true; the Germans were first but only barely by a matter of months and it wasn’t Messerschmidt either.
Reiss build first phone. Bell only modified it.
doubtful.
I only value our inventions. And thanks god germany is leading this field. I have little to no respect for others regarding this.[/QUOTE]

Sure. You might also include Zyklon B.
 
Status
Closed