Which empire had the greatest cultural and social impact on its conquered lands?

Which empire had the greatest cultural and social impact on its conquered lands?

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Ad Honorem
Apr 2015
The Marathas were so formidable that a bunch of Merchant Adventurers beat them and dominated a sub-continent.

The British East India Company do what all such entities do-- seek profit, they or those like them still do.

Not sure English was 'forced' on anyone but if you wanted to get ahead it helped. If the British still spoke Welsh or French things would not have been different I agree, but if the British did not arrive in India another European country would have.

If the BEIC had dominated but just 'traded' then if could have been worse for 'India' divided into several state none of whom liked the other each with 'India companies' from various states more than willing to sell munitions, provide 'advisors' perhaps even whole regiments of mercenaries (the BEIC had its own European regiments, leased units of the crown , plus locally raised troops) to the highest bidder. Infact these different companies might well see that it was in their own financial interest that there be no 'winner' and ensure that a balance of power (or disorder ) remained.
So what if Marathas were defeated, it don't prove anything. Even a tiny nomadic population of Mongols ended up making the world largest Empire conquering huge countries like China. An advanced Empire like Rome was trampled over by Germanic tribes.

British uniting India is just a half baked truth. Most of these princely states were British creation to make conquest of India far easy. Mughal ruled India from Kabul to Thiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu(southernmost state of India) in 1707 and Marathas too ruled most of India in 1760. Hyderabad state entered "Subsidiary Alliance" with British to avoid getting absorbed into Maratha Empire.