Which ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman E were the most disloyal?

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,666
SoCal
#1
Which ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman Empire were the most disloyal in the pre-World War I years?

I was inspired to ask this question by Shtajerc's comment in another thread about how most Slovenes in Austria-Hungary were loyal to the Dual Monarchy until late into World War I. Basically, this caused me to wonder which ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Russia were the most disloyal and thus the most committed to separating from these empires in the pre-World War I years.

Any thoughts on this?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,666
SoCal
#5
I would say the Serbs. After all, it was their dispute with the A-H Empire that resulted in WWI.
That's very true.

For the Turks, it was likely the Arabs or Armenians, although the Serbs were also part of Ottoman's opponent in the First Balkan War.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Balkan_War
In addition to these three ethnic groups, the Bulgarians and Greeks also fought against the Ottomans during the First Balkan War and were previously under Ottoman rule.
 

Rodger

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
5,645
US
#6
That's very true.



In addition to these three ethnic groups, the Bulgarians and Greeks also fought against the Ottomans during the First Balkan War and were previously under Ottoman rule.
The Serbs have always been a feisty bunch, willing to fight for their culture and freedom. I wouldn't say they agitated the A-Hs and the Ottomans, but they were constantly trying to free themselves from their rule. At the start of WWI the Serbs proved to be more than the A-Hs expected, holding their own and then some. Of course, the A-H army was not helped by the fact that it consisted of many fragmented ethnic populations, not very excited to die for the Empire. My great uncle's father (through marriage) was from what is now Slovakia and he fought for the A-Hs in WWI. I remember as a child him telling stories. Basically a foot soldier, he did his duty but was not happy to be conscripted into a war.
 

Shtajerc

Ad Honorem
Jul 2014
6,468
Lower Styria, Slovenia
#7
In Austria-Hungary I'd say Hungarians and Poles. I would argue that the Serbs living in Austria-Hungary for a long time (Uskok descendants) were pretty loyal. Look at Svetozar Borojević. Bosnian Serbs are a different story.

However, when ww1 broke out A-H had a big problem. Slavs didn't like to fight Slavs and you had them fighting each other on both the Serbian and the Russian front. You couldn't motivate a lot of Slavs to fight the Russians whom they saw as their big brothers although Poles and Bosniaks might be an exception. Ruthenians spoke the same language as people on the other side of the border. I heard that a whole Bohemian battalion marched over to the Russians with their brass band playing along. Czechs were big on Panslavism but they weren't considered good soldiers. Many of them were good engineers in the navy though. Slavs liked to surrender to the Russians because this way the war was over for them - they were put on Russian farms to work, most of them were peasents anyway and knew the job plus they enjoyed the company of Russian women whose men were away fighting.

By the same token you wouldn't trust Italian soldiers during the war. They liked to put Slovenes and Croats on the Isonzo front. Slovenes always put up a tough deffense there because it was their own people behind the front and Croats often proved as good deffenders as well.
 
May 2017
1,201
Syria
#8
For the Turks, I'd say disloyalty saw a massive increase in every non-Turkish Ottoman subjects of all-ethnic groups by the late period of Ottoman rule, thanks to the rise of Turkish nationalists who began claiming how Turks were the only loyal group in the empire. All other ethnic groups were in some way seen as disloyal groups who could threaten the integrity of the homogeneous Turkish state many nationalists advocated for.
 
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Rodger

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
5,645
US
#9
For the Russians. I can see the Poles as a thorn in their side. For the A-H, not so much. The A-H treated the Poles in their empire much better than the Russians and Germans did.