Which national movements were very weak before WWI but got their own state later on?

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,969
SoCal
#1
Which national movements were very weak before World War I but got their own state later on?

For instance, I can think of Belarus and the various countries of Central Asia eventually acquiring independence in spite of the fact that their people don't appear to have had much of a national consciousness in the pre-WWI era. Likewise, the Zionist movement doesn't appear to have been a particularly large one before WWI--with most Jews who left Eastern Europe before WWI moving to places other than Palestine. Still, the Zionist movement ultimately succeeded--as did the Muslim nationalist movement in British India with the creation of Pakistan.

Which other national movements didn't have much strength in the pre-WWI era but were ultimately successful later on--either as a result of their own efforts or as a result of external forces/actors intervening and supporting their cause (whether on purpose or accidentally)?
 
Jun 2017
2,614
Connecticut
#3
Which national movements were very weak before World War I but got their own state later on?

For instance, I can think of Belarus and the various countries of Central Asia eventually acquiring independence in spite of the fact that their people don't appear to have had much of a national consciousness in the pre-WWI era. Likewise, the Zionist movement doesn't appear to have been a particularly large one before WWI--with most Jews who left Eastern Europe before WWI moving to places other than Palestine. Still, the Zionist movement ultimately succeeded--as did the Muslim nationalist movement in British India with the creation of Pakistan.

Which other national movements didn't have much strength in the pre-WWI era but were ultimately successful later on--either as a result of their own efforts or as a result of external forces/actors intervening and supporting their cause (whether on purpose or accidentally)?
Almost all of them fit this criteria. Ireland's motivated by events during WWI, the Austro-Hungarian independence movement save Bohemia(something resembling that dates back to well before the Thirty Years War trying to choose their own dukes instead of the hereditary one who hated their value system )motivated by WWI or Serbian efforts at a South Slavic empire(as became readily apparent later on). Ottoman country's are western constructs as a product of WWI as well. So basically all of them except Bohemia, maybe Ukraine and the Baltics had something, Lithuanians probably had some sort of identity, Polish independence must have been a movement too especially in Russian Poland.
 
Likes: Futurist

Frank81

Ad Honorem
Feb 2010
4,988
Canary Islands-Spain
#4
Which national movements were very weak before World War I but got their own state later on?

For instance, I can think of Belarus and the various countries of Central Asia eventually acquiring independence in spite of the fact that their people don't appear to have had much of a national consciousness in the pre-WWI era. Likewise, the Zionist movement doesn't appear to have been a particularly large one before WWI--with most Jews who left Eastern Europe before WWI moving to places other than Palestine. Still, the Zionist movement ultimately succeeded--as did the Muslim nationalist movement in British India with the creation of Pakistan.

Which other national movements didn't have much strength in the pre-WWI era but were ultimately successful later on--either as a result of their own efforts or as a result of external forces/actors intervening and supporting their cause (whether on purpose or accidentally)?
In the case of most of European colonies, after WWI large investments in education of local elites took place. Their position was subordinated to the European rulers, but above of their own nationals. When this educated native elite took form, by WWII, they grew increasingly conscious of their real power, as well as their not so good actual position.

Thence nationalism spread like fire from one corner of the world to the other, particularly when Europeans proved themselves not to be so perfect (many troops and administratives were well aware of the issues in the front), and unable to defeat non-European powers by themselves (Japan in the case of Asia). So after the war, it was clear for them their time had come.

On the other hand, most of this nationalistic movements got support, in the form of diplomacy, money or weapons, from the USSR in the context of the Cold War; thence the ecclosion of dozens of independent states in the period 1950-1975
 
Likes: Futurist

AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
25,619
Italy, Lago Maggiore
#5
Well ... all the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which had defeated in WWI, saw national aspirations getting kudos up to create new countries.

So countries in the Balkans, in Middle East [Egypt included] ...
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,969
SoCal
#7
Well ... all the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which had defeated in WWI, saw national aspirations getting kudos up to create new countries.

So countries in the Balkans, in Middle East [Egypt included] ...
Just how significant of a force was Arab nationalism in the pre-WWI era, though?
 

AlpinLuke

Ad Honoris
Oct 2011
25,619
Italy, Lago Maggiore
#8
Just how significant of a force was Arab nationalism in the pre-WWI era, though?
The proper Arab nationalism is a phenomenon which was born just before of WWI in the lands of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning it was quite moderate [may be in Egypt it was a bit more alive, but Egypt was already under the British influence, even if still a vassal of the Ottomans, so an European presence probably made local nationalism more active] and the requests were focused on the usage of the Arab language and a bit of administrative automony.

As for I have understood the panislamic ideology was anyway quite strong [and it didn't give a great value to the "nation"] and the Arab nationalism entered in competition with it. The only country where nationalism tent almost immediately to prevail was Syria [where they were thinking to a Great Syria including also Palestine and Lebanon].

They organized the first Arab Congress in 1913 and the participation wasn't exceptional. It was WW I, with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire to leave room for the nationalists to gain more popular support [and the fall of the Ottoman Empire damaged, obviously the panislamic ideology ... where was the eternal Islamic State?].
 
Likes: Futurist

Similar History Discussions