OK, I can see that. But I can also see Northern Republicans gambling that with a little effort they could stop voter suppression and win every election up to 1932 easily. Starting in 1932 Blacks voted Democrat and then I see Republicans allowing voter suppression even though the Democrats no longer have a motive to suppress the Black vote. Then after WW2 and the rise of segregationist candidates like Thurmond and George Wallace, I can see the Black vote being suppressed again. But you're right, it's all about short term advantage.I'm saying that any proposals to have the US President be elected by popular vote before the mid-20th century would have likely went nowhere because Republicans and Northerners wouldn't have wanted to have a popular vote system when a lot of their own black voters were disenfranchised.