Who's who

May 2017
1,201
Syria
#11
Thanks. The official language of the state is Arabic, but their native language is Syriac.
Yes, like that.
Another question if you dont mind, connected with the linguistics. Do you have French and Ottoman Turkish loanwords in your Arabic? My own native language has certain amount of Ottoman Turkish loanwords due to being eyalets/vilayets of the Ottoman empire for many centuries and because i know this was also the case with ur ppl i am wondering about the extent of influence of this foreign language.
Do you mean in the formal Modern Standard Arabic used in official documents, books, etc.. (but not in used in conversation) or the Levantine Arabic which is used in common conversation and media (but in no documents or anything official or formal)?
 
Sep 2012
3,751
Bulgaria
#12
Yes, like that.

Do you mean in the formal Modern Standard Arabic used in official documents, books, etc.. (but not in used in conversation) or the Levantine Arabic which is used in common conversation and media (but in no documents or anything official or formal)?
I guess in both Levantine Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. I have certain information about the latter and none about the former. I appreciate your taking the time to answer my questions.
 
Jun 2017
2,814
Connecticut
#13
Being a thick Westerner I find it very difficult to track who is fighting who, and why! Can anyone tell me if my understanding of Middle East affairs are right, or, more probably wrong.I can just about understand the schism between Shia and Sunni, after all England had the same sort of problem between Protestant and Catholic about 400 years ago! I think it was Henry Ford (He of car fame) who said that "The only thing that History has taught us is that History has never taught us anything"
So , Here goes.
Iran Yemen Are Shia
Iraq has a ruling Sunni party , but a Shia majority.
Saudi is Wahabi , which is Sunni under a more extreme name.
Bahrain has a Shia majority , but a Sunni Government, back up by Saudi.
The fast disappearing Al Qada are/were Sunni.
Yemen had a Sunni Government, which was recently overthrown by non Sunnis of some description, thus allowing Saudi to bomb anyone there at will.
As for Syria, I know that Assad is in power , supported by the Russkies, But I am not quite sure who he is fighting!
The Kurds want their own country and will fight anyone.

If anyone can tell me which of the above statements is wrong, and indeed, put me right ,it would be appreciated .
By the way, I think Egypt should stand a million miles away from what is going on!
For the Sunni Shia thing the easiest way to remember it is that everyone but Iran is majority Sunni and a Shia government anywhere else is in minority and hence Iran supports both Sunni and Shia groups despite being Shia. Shia government in Iraq was one of the leading things that led to the rise of ISIS which was Sunni.

Right on about the Kurds and right on about Syria being very hard to follow lots of factions especially when ISIS was in there.

Throughout the entirety of history only Shia empire I can think of that didn't come from Iran was the Fatimid's.
 
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Tsar

Ad Honorem
Apr 2015
2,010
Serbia
#14
I guess in both Levantine Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. I have certain information about the latter and none about the former. I appreciate your taking the time to answer my questions.
JaddHaidar will certainly give you a better answer, but the estimations that I know about say that there are currently 250 Turkish loanwords in the MSA, and 3000 for Syrian Arabic (1150 for Egyptian, 250 for Iraqi). Precise numbers are impossible to determine, but ever since the end of the Ottoman Empire the number has been drastically declining in all types of Arabic.

Here are some examples:

TURKISH -> ARABIC

dönüm -> dūnum (a square measure)
damga ->damġa (stamp)
gümrük -> jumruk (customs)
zindan -> zinzāna (prison)
binbaşı -> bikbāšī (officer)
kol -> qōl (army corps)
tabur -> ṭābūr (batallion)
tabanca ->ṭabanja (pistol)
çengel -> šankal (hook)
sinara -> ṣināra (fish hook)
çeşme -> šašma (fountain -> toilet)
soba -> ṣōba (stove)
kazan -> qazān (large boiler)
tawa -> tawwāya (frying pan)
teneke -> tanaka (can)
çizme -> jazma (boot)
kayış -> qāyiš (belt)
yaka -> yāqa (collar)
dondurma -> dandurma (ice cream)
meze -> mazza (hors d'oeuvres)
sucuk -> sujuq (sausage)
yusuf efendi -> yūsuf afandi (tangerine)

There are some words that complicate things further, like Persian, Greek and Slavic words brought through Ottoman Turkish. For example:

PERSIAN -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
xumbara (small jar) -> kumbara (bombshell) -> qunbula (grenade, bomb)
čādor-šab -> çarşaf -> šaršaf (bedsheet)

GREEK -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
sèmadoúra -> şamandıra -> šamandūra (buoy)

SLAVIC -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
niemce -> Nemçe -> an-Nimsā (Germans)

FRENCH -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
capote -> kaput -> kabbūt (coat)

ITALIAN -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
timone -> dümen -> dūmān (rudder)

There were also some Arabic loanwords in Ottoman Turkish that were combined and then borrowed back into Arabic, like:

baladiyya - municipality
madaniyya - civilization
jumhūriyya - republic
 
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May 2017
1,201
Syria
#15
JaddHaidar will certainly give you a better answer, but the estimations that I know about say that there are currently 250 Turkish loanwords in the MSA, and 3000 for Syrian Arabic (1150 for Egyptian, 250 for Iraqi). Precise numbers are impossible to determine, but ever since the end of the Ottoman Empire the number has been drastically declining in all types of Arabic.

Here are some examples:

TURKISH -> ARABIC

dönüm -> dūnum (a square measure)
damga ->damġa (stamp)
gümrük -> jumruk (customs)
zindan -> zinzāna (prison)
binbaşı -> bikbāšī (officer)
kol -> qōl (army corps)
tabur -> ṭābūr (batallion)
tabanca ->ṭabanja (pistol)
çengel -> šankal (hook)
sinara -> ṣināra (fish hook)
çeşme -> šašma (fountain -> toilet)
soba -> ṣōba (stove)
kazan -> qazān (large boiler)
tawa -> tawwāya (frying pan)
teneke -> tanaka (can)
çizme -> jazma (boot)
kayış -> qāyiš (belt)
yaka -> yāqa (collar)
dondurma -> dandurma (ice cream)
meze -> mazza (hors d'oeuvres)
sucuk -> sujuq (sausage)
yusuf efendi -> yūsuf afandi (tangerine)

There are some words that complicate things further, like Persian, Greek and Slavic words brought through Ottoman Turkish. For example:

PERSIAN -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
xumbara (small jar) -> kumbara (bombshell) -> qunbula (grenade, bomb)
čādor-šab -> çarşaf -> šaršaf (bedsheet)

GREEK -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
sèmadoúra -> şamandıra -> šamandūra (buoy)

SLAVIC -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
niemce -> Nemçe -> an-Nimsā (Germans)

FRENCH -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
capote -> kaput -> kabbūt (coat)

ITALIAN -> TURKISH -> ARABIC
timone -> dümen -> dūmān (rudder)

There were also some Arabic loanwords in Ottoman Turkish that were combined and then borrowed back into Arabic, like:

baladiyya - municipality
madaniyya - civilization
jumhūriyya - republic
Well written Tsar! :D

As you said, Ottoman Turkish loanwords are most prominent in the Levantine dialect while more less in modern standard Arabic. Here are a few more:
Aywa (yeah)
Oda (room)
Khalas (enough)
Tamam (okay)
Harem (traditionally used to refer to women's chambers in a Muslim household; still used sometimes to informally refer to women)
Khazouq (impalement)
Dolab (wardrobe)
Doughri (right ahead)
Afandi (nowadays informally used to refer to a person of higher rank, sometimes used sarcastically)
Shanta (bag)
Edebiyat (literature)
Tekkiye (sufi center, nowadays associated mostly with the Tekkiye Mosque in Damascus)
Boza (ice cream)
Banyo (bathtub, not sure on the origin of this one though)
Tuz (originally means salt; now used to offensively proclaim indifference or carelessness)

Some French loanwords used in common Levantine Arabic:
Chauffeur (driver)
Coiffeur (hairdresser)
Taxi (cab, sometimes refers to a normal car)
Salon (living room)
Canapé (couch)
Douche (shower)
Rouge (lipstick)
Abajour (lampshades, also used to refer to blinds)
Maquillage (makeup)
Poudre (powder)
Fer à lisser (hair straightener, shortened to "lisser")
Gâteau (cake)
Chocolat (chocolate)
Vanille (vanilla)
Balcon (balcony)
Toilette (toilet)
Robe de chambre (dressing gown)
Pyjama (pajama)
Culotte (briefs)
Soutien-gorge (bra, shortened to soutien)
Lampe (lamp)
Câble (cable)
Robe (dress, rarely used)
Autoroute (highway, rarely used)
Manucure (manicure, rarely used)
Chapeau (hat, rarely used)

I'm sure there are more than I could think of, but for now those are the most prominent French words used in Levantine Arabic and a few additions to Tsar's list of Ottoman Turkish loanwords in Levantine Arabic.
 
Sep 2012
3,751
Bulgaria
#17
@Tsar @JaddHaidar The amount of Ottoman Turkish loanwords integrated into the languages is really amazing, despite of multiple attemps to strip mine from them. I use some of the words from your lists on daily basis. Thank you both really informative. Here is a short list of Ottoman loanwords in my native language for comparison.

akıl - mind, advice
ambar - barn, originally Arabic word
baklava - baklava
bela - trouble, originally Arabic word
bakşiş - tip, originally Persian word
boya - paint
para - money
pazar - market
çorap - sock
çekmece - drawer
çerçeve - frame (rarely)
çırak - apprentice, originally Persian word
çorba - soup
döşeme - laying
gurbet - abroad
gön - hard and thick skin
göl - water hole
garga - jackdaw
kismet - luck
köşe - bald
korniz, pervaz - cornice
lokum, rahat lokum - Turkish delight
mağaza - store
maşa - table
yaka - collar
perde - curtain
patlıcan - eggplant
tencere - cooking pot
terlik - house slippers
tava - pan
tavan - ceiling etc etc

EDIT: Boza is quite popular drink here. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boza
 
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