Why didn't Salazar restore the Portuguese monarchy like Franco did in Spain?

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
17,726
SoCal
#1
Why didn't Antonio Salazar restore the Portuguese monarchy like Francisco Franco did in Spain? After all, both of these countries were right-wing dictatorships and one would think that a monarchical restoration in both of these countries would have provided some additional legitimacy to the right-wing rulers of these countries. Yet Spain had its monarchy restored and Portugal didn't. Why?

Also, do you think that the Portuguese monarchy would have survived up to the present-day had it been restored by Salazar? Or would it have been overthrown in 1974-1975 when Portugal experienced a revolution and a return to democracy?

Any thoughts on this? @Tulius
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
5,365
Portugal
#2
Why didn't Antonio Salazar restore the Portuguese monarchy like Francisco Franco did in Spain? After all, both of these countries were right-wing dictatorships and one would think that a monarchical restoration in both of these countries would have provided some additional legitimacy to the right-wing rulers of these countries. Yet Spain had its monarchy restored and Portugal didn't. Why?

Also, do you think that the Portuguese monarchy would have survived up to the present-day had it been restored by Salazar? Or would it have been overthrown in 1974-1975 when Portugal experienced a revolution and a return to democracy?

Any thoughts on this? @Tulius
The situations in both Iberian countries had lots of similarities and also quite a lot of differences.

First of all, and probably the most relevant to answer here, is that Franco was a monarchist and Salazar wasn’t.

The Portuguese republic was implemented a bit before the Spanish, in 1910, while the Spanish was in 1931, and while the First Portuguese Republic was quite turbulent, with lots of military coups and counter coups, and assassinations, the country never reached the limit of a civil war.

In 1926 a Military coup, conservative, nationalist, gave the country some political stability ending the First Republic.

Salazar was a civilian, a bureaucrat, a university professor on the law school at Coimbra, even an intellectual, but not a military. He was catholic, conservative, anti-liberal, he gathered support among the few monarchists that still existed, but he wasn’t one of them. He entered the government by invitation as a Finance Minister. In one of the military goverments that emerged from the militaary coup of 1926. Than he went up. The regime that he forged the “Estado Novo” (New State) was much more inspired on the Sidonist ephemeral regime of 1917-8 of the “República Nova” (New Republic) than in the monarchy. He didn’t needed the monarchists for legitimacy.

Franco was a military man, a veteran commander of the war in Africa, a monarchist, also a catholic, conservative, and anti-liberal. He achieved the power winning a civil war, in the sequence of a failed military coup, which had the objective to re-establish the monarchy. He wasn’t even the leader of the coup. The most relevant leaders had died. The idea of delivering the power to the king and restore the monarchy was always implicit in Franco’s regime and among many Franco’s supporters. He needed the monarchists for legitimacy.

As for your two last questions… I don’t know. It is quite speculative. The idea of Salazar delivering the power to the monarchists is a bit odd (even if some monarchists may had that dream at some point), so if it did, would the Monarchy be a democracy or would it continue a dictatorship, like in the times of Franco (the Portuguese one)? How would face WWII? The Colonial War? The relations with the EEC? The answers of the monarchy to those themes would give the answer if it would survive or not. I would have doubts since the republican spirit seemed already strong among a huge part of the Portuguese in the 1920’s and 1930’s.
 
Likes: Futurist

betgo

Ad Honorem
Jul 2011
6,039
#3
Franco probably wasn't expecting Spain to become so democratic, but restoring the monarchy was a compromise. What actually happened was sort of the worse case for Franco if the monarchy was restored. However, trying to maintain the dictatorship could lead to another civil war or another radical government. Much of the support from Franco in the Civil War was from monarchist, and those OK with a republic, but were upset by attacks on the Catholic Church, private property, etc. Salazar was not expecting the dictatorship to be overthrown.
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
5,365
Portugal
#4
Franco probably wasn't expecting Spain to become so democratic, but restoring the monarchy was a compromise. What actually happened was sort of the worse case for Franco if the monarchy was restored. However, trying to maintain the dictatorship could lead to another civil war or another radical government. Much of the support from Franco in the Civil War was from monarchist, and those OK with a republic, but were upset by attacks on the Catholic Church, private property, etc. Salazar was not expecting the dictatorship to be overthrown.
Salazar died in 1969 the dictatorship ended in 1974 with a military coup, not necessarily only to (re)establish the democracy but surely due to corporate problems among military officers serving abroad in the colonial war.

Marcelo Caetano (Salazar’s heir after 1968/9) could had made the transference to the democracy. There was a period called “Primavera Marcelista” (Marcelist Spring) where the dictatorship really opened a bit, both in politics and in economic terms. But it wasn’t enough, especially with the still ongoing Colonial War.
 
Likes: Futurist
Oct 2015
5,179
Matosinhos Portugal
#5
n the time of Franco to Spain was a Republica, Spain returned to the monarchy after the death of Franco. The Kings of Spain lived in Portugal


When the Kings of Spain lived in Portugal
King Juan Carlos and his family lived in Vila Giralda, a residence chosen by their parents, the Counts of Barcelona, for the exile of more than 30 years in Portugal.

At the entrance to Estoril there is a tombstone dedicated to the kings, where you can read: "Homage of the municipality of Cascais to the Counts of Barcelona D. Juan de Borbón, D. Maria de Las Mercedes de Borbón and his sons Pilar, Juan Carlos, Margarita and Alfonso, who lived in Estoril from 1946 to 1977, bequeathed to the inhabitants of Cascais a permanent memory of sympathy, simplicity and humanism "



Quando os Reis de Espanha viviam em Portugal