Congregationalist and Presbyterians tended to be Patriots. At that time most of the population was those two religions and Anglicans. Quakers were pacifist, but my understanding was the Quaker and Anglican elite in Philadelphia was mostly Loyalists. Generally, any religion other than Anglican or Quaker was mostly Patriot. It was sort of a continuation of the English Civil War.I remember reading a quote somewhere from a British officers diary which said something to the effect that "this rebellion won't be put down until we eradicate every last damn Presbyterian". Which kind of makes sense, given the Presbyterians' substantial contribution to the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil Wars.
The Anglican Church went from being the biggest to almost nonexistent. The first Anglican Bishop in the US (there was none in colonial times) had been a chaplain in American recruited portions of the British Army.
Incidently, Jews petitioned for the clause in the Constitution banning religious tests, citing their contributions in fighting and financing the war. Any test would likely have required the office holder be Christian or Protestant. However, the main reason it was included was that test in colonial times had specifically required the holder be Anglican or Congregationalist depending on the colony. Tests in Europe required the holder to be Catholic, Lutheran, Orthodox, and Muslim, depending on the country.