Why the upper egyptian pottery is Mesopotamian/Iranic , but not the lower egyptian?

Dec 2019
Why Grezean/Naqadan pottery and motifs is Mesoptamian/Iranic , but not the lower egyptian culture such as Maadi and Buto which was more connected with the levant/near east?
instead the pottery of Maadi in lower egypt is similar to levant pottery , but upper egyptian pottery is clearly originated from somehowere in uruk or susa of iran.
even the mesopotamian influence on upper egypt predate the Mesopotamian influence that appeared later in the levant.
opposing to the logical possibility that a near eastern influence would come from the northerneast of egypt via the levant.

a references to read:


Ad Honorem
Oct 2016
Well, 'the two lands' where not unified all the time . Perhaps northern / lower valley cultures had an influx of development from the Levant and southern / upper valley had influx from Mesopotamia ?

Wadi Hammamat seems a key area ; the river snakes to the east , the wadi shows cave art of perhaps the beginnings of Pharaonic culture ( see Toby Wilkinson - ' Genesis of the Pharaohs ' ) . It then travels east to Quseir on the Red Sea where they have found the oldest maritime port in the world yet found .

The book I am reading at the moment postulates a trade link across Arabia ( and a lot more about Arabian influence ). There is also a sea trade link from BMAC ( for lapis and other things ) through to IVC and then by sea to Quseir .

Perhaps there was an overland route through Iran as well ?
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Forum Staff
Oct 2011
Italy, Lago Maggiore
Well, what the author [in 1987] said ... "Most of the Egyptian artefacts discussed here come from uncontrolled excavations or are unprovenanced" doesn't promise a lot.

Anyway, the present impression is that before Naqada III there were no contacts between Egypt and Mesopotamia [and these contacts would be just proved by objects found in Maadi and Buto cultural areas ... but those objects have been questioned by not a few scholars]. So that when you say "Naqada", you are not accurate: Maadi and Buto were less or more contemporary with the two early phases of Naqada and when Mesopotamian contacts appeared [with certainty] Naqada III had already started [see: Moorey 1990; Ciałowicz 1999: 126; Hendrickx & Bavay 2002: 69-70].