I wonder how much heat comes into play in this?But on the other hand there appears to have been the inverse relationship with overall quality of life, that Anglo America had more binary & conservative race relations than Latin America who was more flexible & liberal with theirs, but on the other hand Latin America appears to have been more cruel & brutal with their treatment of races, as well as everyone frankly, while North America had a more healthy climate for work & living, while Latin America appears to have been far less healthy to have lived in.
This seems to be a particularly inverse dilemma for those enthusiastic about slavery, the topic of where slaves had it better.
Studies show an increase in crime/violence where it's hotter.
And there's hot temperatures can negatively effect learning....
Relationship Between Heat and Violence Found
Students Learning Suffers When Heat Goes Up
Though a too cold environment can affect learning too, and both too hot and too cold can effect productivity...
Too Hot or Too Cold
Classroom Temperature Affect Students
So before air conditioning, temperatures could have been having an effect on nations in these areas (and still have an effect where people can't afford air conditioning). Good sources of heating the indoors came before good sources of cooling homes, so heat would have had an earlier effect. Though cold weather tends to mean less food resources than warmer weather, except in extreme heat like deserts, so that would have balanced things some until trade became easier.
I mean, if you look at a map of average world temperatures....
The hottest parts, in the red, do also seem to coincide with the places with the most poverty and conflict, and the yellow through green areas, do tend to be where the most developed, richest countries are (with a few exceptions).
So, air conditioning could literally change the world?