WW1- What role did Germany play in influencing The Ottoman Empire to declare a Jihad against the allies?

JoanOfArc007

Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
3,960
USA
When one looks at the early 20th century it was a time not too far removed from the Victorian era. The Ottoman Empire and Germany were allies in World War I.

What role did Germany play in influencing the ottoman empire to declare a jihad in World War I? Did Germany feel that the greatness of Islam perhaps would influence Muslims to contribute to the World War I effort better? Was it a matter of glory if you will ? Is it a matter of Germany using its form of Christian holy war in history to try and say to the Ottomans you folks need to declare a jihad.

Were the Germans convinced that Muslims in the British Empire for example would revolt and take up arms in favor of the Ottoman call for a jihad?

It is of the upmost interest to me that the ottoman empire declared a jihad in World War I but was allied with Germany. Of course Germany was a massively Christian country in World War I. Here was a case of The Ottoman Empire declaring a jihad not against Germany but With Germany against the allies,

 
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JoanOfArc007

Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
3,960
USA
Abstract: The Ottoman Empire, under pressure from its ally Germany, declared a jihad shortly after entering the First World War. The move was calculated to rouse Muslims in the British, French and Russian empires to rebellion. Dismissed at the time and since as a ‘jihad made in Germany’, the Ottoman attempt to turn the Great War into a holy war failed to provoke mass revolt in any part of the Muslim world. Yet, as German Orientalists predicted, the mere threat of such a rebellion, particularly in British India, was enough to force Britain and its allies to divert scarce manpower and materiel away from the main theatre of operations in the Western Front to the Ottoman front.

 

JoanOfArc007

Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
3,960
USA
The Council of the All-India Muslim League adopted resolutions in support of the British war effort. ‘The council of [the] Muslim League gives expression . . . to the deep-rooted loyalty and sincere devotion of the Mussalmans of India to the British Crown and assures His Excellency [i.e. the viceroy] that the participation of Turkey in the present war does not and cannot affect that loyalty and devotion in the least degree’, they resolved.18


The French followed a similar policy in North Africa, to rally Muslim notables in condemnation of jihad and support of the Entente war effort against Germany. The Revue du Monde Musulman, published by French Orientalists in Morocco, devoted an entire issue in December 1914 to testimonials and declarations of loyalty from colonial Muslims in Western Africa, Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.


The Ottoman call to jihad was meant by a counter jihad of sorts from Muslims of the Allied countries
 

JoanOfArc007

Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
3,960
USA
This is more from the informative 20 page article in the original post. It Must have been an exotic thing For Germans of the World War I era to read about how their country was working with the ottoman empire and how the ottoman empire had declared a jihad against the allies. Makes me wonder how many regular every day Germans were thinking yes we got the allies now when the ottoman empire did declare their jihad.

The European fascination with the latent power of Islamic fanaticism was captured in John Buchan’s popular novel Greenmantle, first published at the height of the Great War in 1916. ‘Islam is a fighting creed, and the mullah still stands in the pulpit with the Koran in one hand and a drawn sword in the other’, Sir Walter Bullivant, the spymaster in Buchan’s novel asserted. ‘Supposing there is some Ark of the Covenant which will madden the remotest Moslem peasant with dreams of Paradise?’6 Variants of this fictive conversation, which Buchan set in the Foreign Office at the end of 1915, had been taking place for real in government offices in Berlin, led by an adviser to the kaiser named Max von Oppenheim. He called it Islampolitik and many Germans believed that the Ottoman Empire’s greatest contribution to the war effort would come through ‘Islam policy’.7


When war broke out in August 1914, Oppenheim established a jihad bureau in Berlin to produce pan-Islamic propaganda to instigate revolts in French North Africa, Russian Central Asia and, the ultimate prize, British India with its 80 million Muslims. Oppenheim assured the German chancellor that, even if the rebellions failed to materialise, the mere threat of a Muslim uprising in India would ‘force England to [agree] to peace terms favourable to us’.8
 

Chlodio

Forum Staff
Aug 2016
4,726
Dispargum
Germany, Britain, and France were all willing to use whatever advantage they could find. If the concept of jihad fit their aims, (and it could certainly be manipulated that way) the European powers were more than willing to use jihad for propaganda purposes.
 
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Sep 2019
113
Turkey
Actually they intended it but it didn't worked. Arabs wanted they Independence from Ottoman . They succeeded it cause of the world war . With the support of the Britain .

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